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Hotel virtual reality advertising: a presence-mediated model and gender effects

Jiaying Lyu (Department of Tourism and Hotel Management, School of Management, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China)
Xi Leung (Department of Hospitality and Tourism Management, University of North Texas, Denton, Texas, USA)
Billy Bai (William F. Harrah College of Hospitality, University of Nevada Las Vegas, Las Vegas, Nevada, USA)
Marla Stafford (William F. Harrah College of Hospitality, University of Nevada Las Vegas, Las Vegas, Nevada, USA)

Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Technology

ISSN: 1757-9880

Article publication date: 21 June 2021

Issue publication date: 5 August 2021




This paper aims to examine the effectiveness of two types of hotel commercials [virtual reality (VR) versus traditional commercials] by proposing and testing a presence-mediated model along with gender effects.


An experimental design is used to test the proposed hypotheses. Data were collected in China, and the Shangri-La hotel brand was chosen. University students were randomly assigned to watch either a hotel VR commercial or a hotel traditional video commercial. One HTC Vive VR headset was provided to those participants in the hotel VR commercial group.


The study revealed that VR commercials generate a higher level of vividness and interactivity among customers, which positively influence attitudes toward the ad, brand attitude and booking intention. Moreover, the findings showed that in the virtual environment, women, as compared to men, are influenced more by VR.


This research is the first to bring the presence model and gender effects together to better understand the effectiveness of VR in hospitality advertising research.


本论文检验两种酒店广告类型的有效性(VR对比传统广告), 通过构建和检验存在-中介模型和性别影响。


本论文使用实验设计方式来验证提供的模型。研究样本数据来自中国, 以香格里拉酒店品牌为例。本论文随机抽样大学学生, 一组看酒店VR广告, 另一组观看酒店传统视频广告。实验参与者使用HTC Vive VR头盔观看VR广告。


研究结果表明, VR广告引发酒店客人的生动和互动性, 对广告、品牌态度、和预定房间意图有着积极影响。此外, 研究结果还表明女性相对男性在虚拟环境中受到VR更多影响。


本论文是首个将存在模型和性别影响相结合, 更好地理解VR在酒店广告研究中的作用。

关键词 虚拟现实、酒店广告、广告有效性、存在、生动、互动性、性别影响



The authors would like to thank Zhejiang Province Soft Sciences Research Projects [grant number 2019C35030], Zhejiang Province Social Science Foundation-Zhijiang Young Scholar Project [grant number 19ZJQN01YB] and Fundamental Research Funds for Central Universities, for their funding support.


Lyu, J., Leung, X., Bai, B. and Stafford, M. (2021), "Hotel virtual reality advertising: a presence-mediated model and gender effects", Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Technology, Vol. 12 No. 3, pp. 409-422.



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