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Revising the tourism-induced environment Kuznets curve hypothesis in top 8 Asian economies: the role of ICT and renewable energy consumption

Syed Ale Raza Shah (School of Economics and Finance, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, China)
Daniel Balsalobre-Lorente (Department of Political Economy and Public Finance, Economics and Business Statistics and Economic Policy, University of Castilla-La Mancha, Ciudad Real, Spain)
Magdalena Radulescu (Department of Finance, Accounting and Economics, University of Pitesti, Pitesti, Romania and Institute of Doctoral and Post-Doctoral Studies, University Lucian Blaga of Sibiu, Sibiu, Romania)
Qianxiao Zhang (School of Economics and Finance, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, China)
Bilal Hussain (Department of Economics, Government College University Faisalabad, Faisalabad, Pakistan)

Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Technology

ISSN: 1757-9880

Article publication date: 15 July 2022




This paper aims to emphasize economic complexity, tourism, information and communication technology (ICT), renewable energy consumption and foreign direct investment (FDI) as the determinants of carbon emissions.


These economies rely on the tourism sector, and Asian countries rank among the top tourism economies worldwide in terms of tourism receipts. This study uses a series of empirical estimators, i.e. cross-sectional augmented auto-regression distributive lag and panel cointegration, to validate the main hypotheses.


The econometric results confirm an inverted U-shaped association between economic complexity and carbon emissions, validating the economic complexity index induced environment Kuznets curve hypothesis for the selected Asian economies.

Research limitations/implications

Finally, the empirical results admit articulating some imperative policy suggestions to attain a sustainable environment on behalf of outcomes.

Practical implications

Furthermore, ICT and renewable energy consumption are environment-friendly indicators, while FDI and the international tourism industry increase environmental pressure in selected countries. In addition, this study also explores the interaction between renewable energy and ICT with FDI and their effects on carbon emissions. Interestingly, both interaction terms positively respond to the environmental correction process.


Because ICT with FDI may not reduce environmental pollution unless the energy used in FDI projects is greener. Moreover, in Asian economies, industrial and other sectors could increase environmental quality via the role of ICT in FDI.

修正亚洲前 8 大经济体的旅游环境库兹涅茨曲线假设:ict 和可再生能源消耗的作用


这些经济体依赖旅游业, 就旅游收入而言, 亚洲国家在全球旅游经济体中名列前茅。本研究使用一系列经验估计量, 即 CS-ARDL 和面板协整来验证我们的主要假设。


本文强调经济复杂性、旅游、信息和通信技术 (ICT)、可再生能源消费和外国直接投资 (FDI) 作为碳排放的决定因素


计量经济学结果证实了经济复杂性与碳排放之间的倒 U 型关联, 验证了 ECI 对选定亚洲经济体的环境库兹涅茨曲线 (EKC) 假设。


最后, 实证结果承认阐明了一些必要的政策建议, 以代表结果实现可持续环境。


此外, 信息通信技术和可再生能源消耗是环境友好型指标, 而外国直接投资和国际旅游业增加了选定国家的环境压力。此外, 本研究还探讨了可再生能源和 ICT 与外国直接投资之间的相互作用及其对碳排放的影响。有趣的是, 这两个交互项都对环境校正过程做出了积极响应。


ICT 与 FDI 可能不会减少环境污染, 除非 FDI 项目中的能源使用更环保。此外, 在亚洲经济体中, 工业和其他部门可以通过 ICT 在 FDI 中的作用提高环境质量。


环境库兹涅茨曲线; 外商直接投资;信息和通信技术; 可再生能源;旅游;亚洲主要旅游经济体

文章类型: 研究型论文



Availability of data and material: Under justified request.

Authors contribution: empirical methodology, introduction, literature review and discussion, theoretical approach, empirical discussion, literature review, conclusions and policy implications.

Funding: This research was funded by the National Social Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 18BJY002), China’s mode and evolutionary path of industry transfer in countries along the Belt and Road from the prospective of industrial symbiosis.


Shah, S.A.R., Balsalobre-Lorente, D., Radulescu, M., Zhang, Q. and Hussain, B. (2022), "Revising the tourism-induced environment Kuznets curve hypothesis in top 8 Asian economies: the role of ICT and renewable energy consumption", Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Technology, Vol. ahead-of-print No. ahead-of-print.



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