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Modification and validation of the travel safety attitude scale (TSAS) in international tourism: a reflective-formative approach

Zhijun Wan (School of Hospitality, Food and Tourism Management, University of Guelph, Guelph, Canada)
Shuyue Huang (Business and Tourism Department, Mount Saint Vincent University, Halifax, Canada)
Hwansuk Chris Choi (School of Hospitality, Food and Tourism Management, University of Guelph, Guelph, Canada)

Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Insights

ISSN: 2514-9792

Article publication date: 22 June 2021

Issue publication date: 7 December 2022

264

Abstract

Purpose

This study modified, revised and validated a travel safety attitude scale (TSAS) using data collected from Canadian residents with out-of-country travel experiences.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors proposed a higher component model (HCM) of TSAS, using a reflective-formative measurement model. In consultation with eight experts, a set of purified TSAS items was revised by checking wording and content. A questionnaire was administered to 531 participants using Amazon Mechanical Turk. The scale was validated with the partial least squares method of structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM), and the analysis was performed using SmartPLS 3.0.

Findings

The final results suggested a five-factor solution with 27 items, with a satisfactory level of reliability and validity at the first-order (reflective) and second-order (formative) constructs. The predictive validity result showed that TSAS is negatively related to tourist risk-taking intention.

Research limitations/implications

TSAS advanced research on travel safety attitudes and demonstrated the feasibility of using PLS-SEM in examining the Type II model. Future studies can focus on replicating the study in other countries, adding more variables for predictive validity tests and examining the interrelationship with affective attitudes.

Practical implications

The authors suggested a more proactive approach to assess tourist safety attitudes based on travel safety information (TSI), health concern (HC), vulnerability to crime (VTC), personal safety (PES) and police safety (PS), listed in descending order of importance.

Originality/value

The study results provide directions for destination marketing organizations to allocate resources to maintain a positive travel safety attitude from potential and current tourists.

Keywords

Citation

Wan, Z., Huang, S. and Choi, H.C. (2022), "Modification and validation of the travel safety attitude scale (TSAS) in international tourism: a reflective-formative approach", Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Insights, Vol. 5 No. 5, pp. 1002-1021. https://doi.org/10.1108/JHTI-01-2021-0012

Publisher

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Emerald Publishing Limited

Copyright © 2021, Emerald Publishing Limited

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