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Development of an instrument to measure organisational culture in community pharmacies in Great Britain

Iuri Marques (Pharmacy School, Faculty of Biology, Medicine and Health, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK)
Sarah Caroline Willis (Pharmacy School, Faculty of Biology, Medicine and Health, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK)
Ellen Ingrid Schafheutle (Pharmacy School, Faculty of Biology, Medicine and Health, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK)
Karen Hassell (Pharmacy School, Faculty of Biology, Medicine and Health, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK)

Journal of Health Organization and Management

ISSN: 1477-7266

Article publication date: 29 January 2018

Issue publication date: 6 April 2018

467

Abstract

Purpose

Organisational culture (OC) shapes individuals’ perceptions and experiences of work. However, no instrument capable of measuring specific aspects of OC in community pharmacy exists. The purpose of this paper is to report the development and validation of an instrument to measure OC in community pharmacy in Great Britain (GB), and conduct a preliminary analysis of data collected using it.

Design/methodology/approach

Instrument development comprised three stages: Stage I: 12 qualitative interviews and relevant literature informed instrument design; Stage II: 30 cognitive interviews assessed content validity; and Stage III: a cross-sectional survey mailed to 1,000 community pharmacists in GB, with factor analysis for instrument validation. Statistical analysis investigated how community pharmacists perceived OC in their place of work.

Findings

Factor analysis produced an instrument containing 60 items across five OC dimensions – business and work configuration, social relationships, personal and professional development, skills utilisation, and environment and structures. Internal reliability for the dimensions was high (0.84 to 0.95); item-total correlations were adequate (r=0.46 to r=0.76). Based on 209 responses, analysis suggests different OCs in community pharmacy, with some community pharmacists viewing the environment in which they worked as having a higher frequency of aspects related to patient contact and safety than others. Since these aspects are important for providing high healthcare standards, it is likely that differences in OC may be linked to different healthcare outcomes.

Originality/value

This newly developed and validated instrument to measure OC in community pharmacy can be used to benchmark existing OC across different pharmacies and design interventions for triggering change to improve outcomes for community pharmacists and patients.

Keywords

Citation

Marques, I., Willis, S.C., Schafheutle, E.I. and Hassell, K. (2018), "Development of an instrument to measure organisational culture in community pharmacies in Great Britain", Journal of Health Organization and Management, Vol. 32 No. 2, pp. 176-189. https://doi.org/10.1108/JHOM-06-2017-0131

Publisher

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Emerald Publishing Limited

Copyright © 2018, Emerald Publishing Limited

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