Applicability of the DUNDRUM-1 in a forensic Belgium setting

Petra Habets (Knowledge Centre Forensic Psychiatric Care, Public Psychiatric Hospital Rekem, Rekem, Belgium)
Inge Jeandarme (Knowledge Centre Forensic Psychiatric Care, Public Psychiatric Hospital Rekem, Rekem, Belgium)
Harry G. Kennedy (Central Mental Hospital, National Forensic Mental Health Service, Dublin, Ireland)

The Journal of Forensic Practice

ISSN: 2050-8794

Publication date: 31 January 2019



Criteria to determine in which level of security forensic patients should receive treatment are currently non-existent in Belgium. Research regarding the assessment of security level is minimal and few instruments are available. The DUNDRUM toolkit is a structured clinical judgement instrument that can be used to provide support when determining security level. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the applicability and validity of the DUNDRUM-1 in Flanders.


The DUNDRUM-1 was scored for 50 male patients admitted at the forensic units in the public psychiatric hospital Rekem. Some files were rated by three researchers who were blind to participants’ security status, resulting in 33 double measurements.


Almost all files (96 per cent) contained enough information to score the DUNDRUM-1. Average DUNDRUM-1 final judgement scores were concordant with a medium security profile. No difference was found between the current security levels and the DUNDRUM-1 final judgement scores. Inter-rater reliability was excellent for the DUNDRUM-1 final judgement scores. On item level, all items had excellent to good inter-rater reliability with the exception of one item institutional behaviour which had an average inter-rater reliability.

Practical implications

The DUNDRUM-1 can be a useful tool in Flemish forensic settings. It has good psychometric properties. More research is needed to investigate the relationship between DUNDRUM-1 scores and security level decisions by the courts.


This is the first study that investigated the applicability of the DUNDRUM-1 in a Belgian setting, also a relative large number of repeated measurements were available to investigate the inter-rater reliability of the DUNDRUM-1.



Habets, P., Jeandarme, I. and Kennedy, H. (2019), "Applicability of the DUNDRUM-1 in a forensic Belgium setting", The Journal of Forensic Practice, Vol. 21 No. 1, pp. 85-94.

Download as .RIS



Emerald Publishing Limited

Copyright © 2019, Emerald Publishing Limited

Please note you might not have access to this content

You may be able to access this content by login via Shibboleth, Open Athens or with your Emerald account.
If you would like to contact us about accessing this content, click the button and fill out the form.
To rent this content from Deepdyve, please click the button.