There are rising issues with the delivery performance of Malaysian low-cost housing (LCH) because the occupants are inclined to perceive safety hazards. Among the safety issues raised during the occupancy period in LCH are structural instability and falling building fragments. Without defining the occupants’ requirements in the early housing development, it is hard to determine the prevailing safety factors. Hence, this paper emphasises the application of post occupancy evaluation (POE) that incorporates participation from the occupants as a tool to assess the safety performance of Malaysian LCH. The purpose of this study is to develop a framework of POE integrated with safety elements for Malaysian LCH.
This research was carried out with a quantitative method using questionnaires as the survey instrument involving safety inspection survey and satisfaction surveys. The inspection survey and Occupants’ Satisfaction Survey were carried out based on 24 LCH projects located in the federal territory of Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. In total, 380 samples were used for both surveys. Statistical correlation was used to affirm the incorporation of occupants’ participation towards safety performance in the POE approach. The Spearman’s rho (r) correlation was used in the analysis for variables in both surveys which consisted of an ordinal scale.
The correlation result revealed that there was a significant relationship among all safety attributes between safety performance and occupants’ satisfaction. Therefore, a framework consisting of POE and safety elements has been proposed based on the significance of both variables. The development process of the framework used the vital phases of POE and inputs of safety elements which consisted of three main stages: planning phase as safety input, conducting phase as safety process and applying phase as safety output.
The surveys were limited to the rented People’s Housing Programme located in Kuala Lumpur and not extensively to all LCH programmes in Malaysia. The surveys were also not carried out to other LCH programmes such as the Hardcore Poor Housing Programmes and the low- to medium-cost housing because of the limitations of time and resources.
This research has introduced a new dimension for safety performance assessment in LCH using the POE as the safety performance tool. By allowing the participation of occupants for safety assessment, this study stresses the fundamental concept of POE by highlighting the importance of obtaining feedback from the building occupants.
As a proactive measure, the proposed framework was introduced as an improved procedure to inspect safety performance in LCH during occupancy, in lieu of the current assessment process. Receiving complaints from the occupants after the occurrence of incidents is demarcated as a reactive approach, whereas the current inspection survey does not incorporate the occupants’ participation. Feedback from occupants is not a routine of building assessment during occupancy; hence, using POE is generally a new dimension of safety performance in Malaysian LCH.
The authors wish to acknowledge the support grant in performing this study under the Exploratory Research Grant Scheme (ERGS) Phase 1/2011 funded by the Ministry of Higher Education Malaysia (MOHE) and also Universiti Teknologi MARA Cawangn Perak, Seri Iskandar, Malaysia.
Husin, H., Nawawi, A., Ismail, F. and Khalil, N. (2018), "Improving safety performance through post occupancy evaluations (POE): A study of Malaysian low-cost housing", Journal of Facilities Management, Vol. 16 No. 1, pp. 65-86. https://doi.org/10.1108/JFM-06-2017-0028Download as .RIS
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