To read this content please select one of the options below:

Advancing theory of fraud: the S.C.O.R.E. model

Georgios L. Vousinas (National Technical University of Athens, Athens, Greece)

Journal of Financial Crime

ISSN: 1359-0790

Article publication date: 7 January 2019




This paper aims to elaborate on the theory of fraud by enhancing the existing theories behind the factors that force people to commit fraud.


The paper reviews the most commonly used and widely accepted models for explaining why people commit fraud – the fraud triangle, the fraud diamond, the fraud scale and the MICE model. The author argues that these models need to be updated to adapt to the current developments in the field and the ever-growing fraud incidents, both in frequency and severity, and builds on the theoretical background to create a new model so as to enhance the understanding behind the major factors which lead to the commitment of fraud.


The author identifies a major element – ego – which plays a crucial role in compelling people to commit fraud and concludes in the formation of the S.C.O.R.E. model, which is graphically depicted in the fraud pentagon. He goes further by adding the factor collusion to better apply in cases of white-collar crimes.


The paper develops the S.C.O.R.E. model to contribute to the development of fraud theory by identifying the key factors that play a major role in whether fraud will actually occur and acting as a theoretical benchmark for all future reference.



Vousinas, G.L. (2019), "Advancing theory of fraud: the S.C.O.R.E. model", Journal of Financial Crime, Vol. 26 No. 1, pp. 372-381.



Emerald Publishing Limited

Copyright © 2019, Emerald Publishing Limited

Related articles