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Preliminary insights on green criminology in Malaysia

Redvin Bilu (Royal Malaysian Customs Department, Kota Kinabalu, Malaysia)
Faizah Darus (Accounting Research Institute, Universiti Teknologi Mara, Shah Alam, Malaysia)
Haslinda Yusoff (Faculty of Accountancy, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Shah Alam, Malaysia)
Intan Salwani Mohamed (Accounting Research Institute, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Shah Alam, Malaysia)

Journal of Financial Crime

ISSN: 1359-0790

Article publication date: 31 July 2021

Issue publication date: 24 May 2022




The purpose of this paper is to examine the extent of environmental offences committed in Malaysia charged under the Environmental Quality Act 1974 (EQA1974).


This study used secondary data of the environmental court cases report by the Department of Environment (DOE) Malaysia from 2008 until 2016 to examine the nature of environmental offences based on the Treadmill of Production (ToP) approach.


In comparison with the GDP growth (Department of Statistic Malaysia, 2016), the findings support ToP argument that as far as the treadmill accelerates, the more would be the environmental crime committed. However, all offences charged were weighted more on the ecological additions rather than ecological withdrawn. The trend analysis showed a decreasing trend for all types of offences committed, reflecting that Malaysia's regulatory authorities are committed to fighting against environmental crime perpetrators. Therefore, all parties must be made to internalise the values of conducting business sustainably.


This paper is the first that examines the environmental offences committed in Malaysia using the ToP approach to analyse the nature of the crime committed in Malaysia associated with the growing literature of Green Criminology.



This study is supported by Accounting Research Institute, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Malaysia.


Bilu, R., Darus, F., Yusoff, H. and Mohamed, I.S. (2022), "Preliminary insights on green criminology in Malaysia", Journal of Financial Crime, Vol. 29 No. 3, pp. 1078-1090.



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