To read this content please select one of the options below:

Design creativity in Industry 4.0: Gravity Sketch and 3D printing in a Luminaire design project

Hoa Vo (Ernest G. Welch School of Art and Design, Georgia State University, Atlanta, Georgia, USA)

Journal of Engineering, Design and Technology

ISSN: 1726-0531

Article publication date: 8 December 2022




This study aims to explore the impact of experiencing virtual reality (VR) and three-dimensional (3D) printing during the design process on the creativity of interior design students in a luminaire design project.


This study used the case-study approach within the context of a nine-week luminaire design project. Collected data included self-reported interest and engagement of students from a Qualtrics questionnaire and the ratings of their creativity via the Creative Product Semantic Scale (CPSS) with two judges.


Descriptive statistics from the Qualtrics questionnaire indicated an overall high level of student interest and engagement with the VR and 3D printing learning experience. Paired t-tests from CPSS ratings of the two judges showed a moderate increase in novelty and a significant increase in style with the introduction of VR and 3D printing technologies, respectively.

Research limitations/implications

Spearman’s correlations (rho) showed no statistical evidence for the relationships between CPSS ratings for creativity and students’ self-reported interest and engagement in VR and 3D printing learning experience.

Practical implications

Ample access time to VR technology and sufficient control over the 3D printing process are important for effective applications of Industry 4.0 technologies in organizations.

Social implications

This study dissected the confounding variables in its results as practical considerations for intergrading VR and 3D printing technologies for organizations in Industry 4.0.


This study acknowledged VR and 3D printing technologies as simulants for interest and engagement, which benefit creativity.



This study was supported by the research start-up package provided to the author by the Ernest G. Welch School of Art & Design (WSAD), College of the Arts, Georgia State University. An education partnership between Gravity Sketch (GS) and WSAD offered students free access to the VR modelling application.

The author thanks James Amann, Director of Operations at Creative Media Industries Institute (CMII), Elliott Kirkpatrick, Lab Lead at EXLAB Atlanta, and Jeremy Joseph Walker, Data Services Librarian at Georgia State University, for providing access to VR and 3 D-printing resources and advice on data visualizations.


Vo, H. (2022), "Design creativity in Industry 4.0: Gravity Sketch and 3D printing in a Luminaire design project", Journal of Engineering, Design and Technology, Vol. ahead-of-print No. ahead-of-print.



Emerald Publishing Limited

Copyright © 2022, Emerald Publishing Limited

Related articles