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Citizenship behavior and misbehavior among superintendents: An integrative approach

Orly Shapira-Lishchinsky (Department of Educational Administration, Leadership and Policy, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat Gan, Israel)
Tania Levy-Gazenfrantz (Department of Educational Administration, Leadership and Policy, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat Gan, Israel)

Journal of Educational Administration

ISSN: 0957-8234

Publication date: 19 August 2019



The purpose of this paper is to explore an integrative model which includes specific intentions that may explain the contradictory citizenship behaviors and misbehaviors among superintendents in Israel.


In total, 518 superintendents from seven Israeli Ministry of Education district offices were randomly selected. Based on sequence theory, the study examined motivational perceptions of authentic leadership, psychological empowerment and collective efficacy, and their relationships toward intentions to engage in organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) and organizational misbehavior (OMB) which may lead to OCB and OMB. The research combined self-reports and computer records. The model was analyzed using Mplus statistical packages.


The authors found that intentions to be late positively predicted lateness, while intentions to leave predicted OMB. In addition, the study indicates several mediating relationships. For example, intentions to engage in OCB-organization and OCB-individual fully mediated the relationship between “self-determination” of psychological empowerment and OCB. In addition, intention to leave mediated the relationship between authentic leadership and lateness.


Across nationalities, superintendents greatly impact the educational processes in their districts. Their high status in the educational system makes them role models. Therefore, it is important to investigate their behaviors and motivations. The findings may contribute toward developing an integrative approach that can predict the superintendents’ behaviors by suggesting specific intentions that can explain corresponding behaviors. This model may also help in developing educational policies for reducing the superintendents’ OMB and increasing their OCB.



Shapira-Lishchinsky, O. and Levy-Gazenfrantz, T. (2019), "Citizenship behavior and misbehavior among superintendents: An integrative approach", Journal of Educational Administration, Vol. 58 No. 1, pp. 1-18.



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