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Building a bibliographic hierarchy for manga through the aggregation of institutional and hobbyist descriptions

Senan Kiryakos (University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Japan)
Shigeo Sugimoto (University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Japan)

Journal of Documentation

ISSN: 0022-0418

Article publication date: 2 October 2018

Issue publication date: 19 February 2019




Multiple studies have illustrated that the needs of various users seeking descriptive bibliographic data for pop culture resources (e.g. manga, anime, video games) have not been properly met by cultural heritage institutions and traditional models. With a focus on manga as the central resource, the purpose of this paper is to address these issues to better meet user needs.


Based on an analysis of existing bibliographic metadata, this paper proposes a unique bibliographic hierarchy for manga that is also extendable to other pop culture sources. To better meet user requirements of descriptive data, an aggregation-based approach relying on the Object Reuse and Exchange-Open Archives Initiative (OAI-ORE) model utilized existing, fan-created data on the web.


The proposed hierarchy is better able to portray multiple entities of manga as they exist across data providers compared to existing models, while the utilization of OAI-ORE-based aggregation to build and provide bibliographic metadata for said hierarchy resulted in levels of description that more adequately meet user demands.


Though studies have proposed alternative models for resources like games or comics, manga has remained unexamined. As manga is a major component of many popular multimedia franchises, a focus here with the intention while building the model to support other resource types provides a foundation for future work seeking to incorporate these resources.



This research, throughout the study process, was funded in part by JSPS KAKENHI Grant No. 16H01754.


Kiryakos, S. and Sugimoto, S. (2019), "Building a bibliographic hierarchy for manga through the aggregation of institutional and hobbyist descriptions", Journal of Documentation, Vol. 75 No. 2, pp. 287-313.



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