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Frameworks for climate risk management (CRM) in cultural heritage: a systematic review of the state of the art

Olufemi Samson Adetunji (School of Architecture and Built Environment, The University of Newcastle, Callaghan, Australia) (Department of Classics and Ancient History, College of Humanities, University of Exeter, Exeter, UK)
Jamie MacKee (The University of Newcastle, Callaghan, Australia)

Journal of Cultural Heritage Management and Sustainable Development

ISSN: 2044-1266

Article publication date: 7 November 2023




A comprehensive understanding of the determining factors and implications of the frameworks for appreciating the relationships between climate risks and cultural heritage remains deficient. To address the gap, the review analysed literature on the management of climate risk in cultural heritage. The review examines the strengths and weaknesses of climate risk management (CRM) frameworks and attendant implications for the conservation of cultural heritage.


The study adopted a two-phased systematic review procedure. In the first phase, the authors reviewed related publications published between 2017 and 2021 in Scopus and Google Scholar. Key reports published by organisations such as the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) and International Council on Monuments and Sites (ICOMOS) were identified and included in Phase Two to further understand approaches to CRM in cultural heritage.


Results established the changes in trend and interactions between factors influencing the adoption of CRM frameworks, including methods and tools for CRM. There is also increasing interest in adopting quantitative and qualitative methods using highly technical equipment and software to assess climate risks to cultural heritage assets. However, climate risk information is largely collected at the national and regional levels rather than at the cultural heritage asset.

Practical implications

The review establishes increasing implementation of CRM frameworks across national boundaries at place level using high-level technical skills and knowledge, which are rare amongst local organisations and professionals involved in cultural heritage management.


The review established the need for multi-sectoral, bottom-up and place-based approaches to improve the identification of climate risks and decision-making processes for climate change adaptation.



Since submission of this article, the following author(s) have updated their affiliation(s): Olufemi Samson Adetunji is at the School of Humanities and Heritage, University of Lincoln, UK.


Adetunji, O.S. and MacKee, J. (2023), "Frameworks for climate risk management (CRM) in cultural heritage: a systematic review of the state of the art", Journal of Cultural Heritage Management and Sustainable Development, Vol. ahead-of-print No. ahead-of-print.



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