To read this content please select one of the options below:

Leadership: emotional and spiritual intelligence in the mix

Carri Reisdorf (Marketing and International Business Department, Elon University, Elon, North Carolina, USA)
Meghan Murray (Marketing and International Business Department, Elon University, Elon, North Carolina, USA)

Journal of Business Strategy

ISSN: 0275-6668

Article publication date: 1 November 2023




One critical aspect of strong leadership communication is developing emotional (EQ) and spiritual intelligences (SQ). EQ helps individuals be more empathetic and effective, while SQ promotes an understanding of impacts beyond oneself. This paper aims to explore the relationship between leadership communication and EQ and SQ. Corporations can leverage leaders with high EQ and SQ and/or provide EQ/SQ training to employees.


Using critical review and integration, the authors consolidate existing literature and best practices to explore, develop and propose strategies for integrating EQ and SQ into the workplace.


Building upon existing theory and literature, the authors present a model of understanding both EQ and SQ. A generalized four-step process is presented for building EQ/SQ capabilities within the firm.


This study explores the synergy between an employee’s leadership skills and the ability to exhibit EQ and SQ. This research can provide corporations with tangible and targeted ways to enhance their EQ and SQ in their leaders. Firms can improve leveraging individuals with high SQ, in addition to providing SQ training to employees to improve individuals’ SQ.



Funding: This work was supported by Elon University’s Honors Program, The Daniel Cavarretta Award and the Love School of Business.


Reisdorf, C. and Murray, M. (2023), "Leadership: emotional and spiritual intelligence in the mix", Journal of Business Strategy, Vol. ahead-of-print No. ahead-of-print.



Emerald Publishing Limited

Copyright © 2023, Emerald Publishing Limited

Related articles