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Goal-oriented balancing: happy–happy negotiations beyond win–win situations

Lars-Johan Åge (Stockholm School of Economics, Stockholm, Sweden)
Jens Eklinder-Frick (Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden)

Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing

ISSN: 0885-8624

Article publication date: 2 May 2017




This paper aims to suggest a dynamic model incorporating the important dimensions that exist in negotiation processes.


To produce a general and conceptual theory of negotiation, the grounded theory methodology is deployed.


The core process in this model is dubbed “goal-oriented balancing” and describes how he negotiator is continuously balancing opposing, and seemingly contrasting, forces in a situation specific and dynamic manner to reach agreements. Based on these findings, this study also suggests a concept to describe negotiations that is focused on collaboration and that is not an oxymoron as is the concept of “win–win”.

Practical implications

This conceptual model can be used by managers and practitioners to navigate in a negotiation process.


This is the first grounded theory study in negotiation research and attempt to describe negotiation processes as dynamic events in which different dimensions are managed simultaneously.



Åge, L.-J. and Eklinder-Frick, J. (2017), "Goal-oriented balancing: happy–happy negotiations beyond win–win situations", Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, Vol. 32 No. 4, pp. 525-534.



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