To read this content please select one of the options below:

The intersectionality of teacher immediacy, emotioncy and willingness to communicate in higher education context

Asieh Amini (Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran)
Hiwa Weisi (Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran)

Journal of Applied Research in Higher Education

ISSN: 2050-7003

Article publication date: 2 September 2021

Issue publication date: 2 January 2023




Given the significance of willingness to communicate and its integral role in the field of foreign/second language acquisition (F/SLA), this quantitative study intends to examine the relationship between sensory emotioncy types and teacher immediacy with second language learners' willingness to communicate (WTC).


A total number of 280 students majoring in teaching English as a Foreign Language (TEFL), and English Language and Literature completed three scales of Sensory Emotioncy Type (SET), Willingness to Communicate and Teacher Immediacy (TI). For data analysis, Pearson correlation coefficient, multiple regression analysis and structural equation modeling (SEM) were employed.


The results of SEM showed that learners' WTC was significantly predicted by emotioncy and teacher immediacy. Further, reports from correlational and regression analyses revealed a significantly positive correlation, first, between teacher immediacy and learners' WTC, secondly, between emotioncy and learners' WTC.

Research limitations/implications

The main limitation of this study was that the participants were selected from one context with relatively a small sample which might restrict the generalization. Nonetheless, the present study findings might extend ancillary horizons and provided worthwhile insights into the perception of teacher immediacy and emotioncy on students' willingness to communicate.

Practical implications

The significance of the current study lies in its theoretical contribution to the notion of WTC and its pedagogical implications and suggestions to the benefits of rejuvenating second language teaching and learning. Findings of this study help pre-service and in-service teachers in providing them more robust picture of learners' individual differences; and hence exert the most appropriate tasks which learners have the most degree of familiarity and better to say, emotioncy.


In the current study notable results were obtained which would be efficacious to the present literature on the EFL teacher immediacy, emotioncy and willingness to communicate. First and foremost, the findings added to a growing body of literature on emotioncy as a relatively novel concept in academic settings and teacher immediacy , and willingness to communicate which have gained scant attention in the field.



Amini, A. and Weisi, H. (2023), "The intersectionality of teacher immediacy, emotioncy and willingness to communicate in higher education context", Journal of Applied Research in Higher Education, Vol. 15 No. 1, pp. 34-50.



Emerald Publishing Limited

Copyright © 2021, Emerald Publishing Limited

Related articles