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Factors underlying the perceived importance of online student engagement strategies

Doris U. Bolliger (STEMPS, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, Virginia, USA )
Florence Martin (Educational Leadership, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, Charlotte, North Carolina, USA)

Journal of Applied Research in Higher Education

ISSN: 2050-7003

Article publication date: 17 June 2020

Issue publication date: 4 May 2021



The purpose of this research study is to validate an instrument that measures the importance instructors and students place on online student engagement strategies.


The online student engagement strategies survey was completed by 160 faculty and 146 students. The data were analysed using descriptive statistics and an exploratory factor analysis. The factor structure was examined using a principal component analysis with an oblique rotation.


Results show that the Online Engagement Strategies Questionnaire has a valid and reliable structure. Based on the exploratory factor analysis, four engagement constructs emerged including peer engagement, multimodal engagement, instructor engagement, and self-directed engagement. Results and discussion assist in identifying key engagement strategies within this online student engagement framework.


The validated instrument fills a gap in the literature, and it has value to practitioners, researchers, administrators and policy makers because it has practical applications.



We would like to thank members of our expert review panel for their generosity with their valuable time and for their critical and constructive feedback which assisted us in the improvement of the instrument. The reviewers were: [Dr. Lynn Ahlgrim-Delzell and Dr. Chuang Wang (University of North Carolina Charlotte), Dr. Cliff Harbour (University of North Texas), Dr. Craig E. Shepherd (University of Memphis), and Dr. Jeremy Tutty (University of Phoenix)].


Bolliger, D.U. and Martin, F. (2021), "Factors underlying the perceived importance of online student engagement strategies", Journal of Applied Research in Higher Education, Vol. 13 No. 2, pp. 404-419.



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