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Hate crime against older people in England and Wales – an econometric enquiry

José Iparraguirre (Chief Economist, based at Age UK, London, UK)

The Journal of Adult Protection

ISSN: 1466-8203

Article publication date: 3 June 2014




The purpose of this paper is to present an econometric analysis of hate crime against older people based on data for England and Wales for 2010-2011 disaggregated by Crown Prosecution Service area – a geographical unit which is co-terminus with local authorities.


The authors ran different specifications of structural regression models including one latent variable and accounting for a number of interactions between the covariates.


The paper suggests that the higher the level of other types of hate crime is in an area, the higher the level of hate crime against older people. Demographics are also significant: a higher concentration of older and young people partially explains hate crime levels against the former. Employment, income and educational deprivation are also associated with biased-crime against older people. Conviction rates seem to reduce hate crime against older people, and one indicator of intergenerational contact is not significant.

Research limitations/implications

Due to data availability and quality, the paper only studies one years worth of data. Consequently, the research results may lack generalisability. Furthermore, the proxy variable for intergenerational contact may not be the most suitable indicator; however, there will not be any other indicators available until Census data come out.

Practical implications

The paper suggests that factors underlying hate crime would also influence hate crime against older people. Besides, the results would not support the “generational clash” view. Tackling income, educational and employment deprivation would help significantly reduce the number of episodes of biased criminal activity against older people. Improving conviction rates of all types of hate crime would also contribute to the reduction of hate crime against older people.


This paper presents the first econometric analysis of hate crime against older people.



Iparraguirre, J. (2014), "Hate crime against older people in England and Wales – an econometric enquiry", The Journal of Adult Protection, Vol. 16 No. 3, pp. 152-165.



Emerald Group Publishing Limited

Copyright © 2014, Emerald Group Publishing Limited

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