Predicting young customers’ intention to repurchase green plastic products: incorporating trust model into purchase intention model

Dwi Suhartanto (Department of Business Administration, Politeknik Negeri Bandung, Bandung, Indonesia)
Ani Kartikasari (Department of Global Value Chain and Trade, Lincoln University, Lincoln, New Zealand)
Raditha Hapsari (Department of Management, Universitas Brawijaya, Malang, Indonesia)
Bambang Setio Budianto (Department of Civil Engineering, Politeknik Negeri Bandung, Bandung, Indonesia)
Mukhamad Najib (Department of Management, Institut Pertanian Bogor, Bogor, Indonesia)
Yackob Astor (Department of Civil Engineering, Politeknik Negeri Bandung, Bandung, Indonesia)

Journal of Asia Business Studies

ISSN: 1558-7894

Article publication date: 8 February 2021

Issue publication date: 8 June 2021

1111

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to assess young customers’ repurchasing intentions toward green plastic products by incorporating green trust model into green purchase intention model. It also evaluates the role of gender moderation in the green repurchase intention formation model.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 314 young consumers of green plastic products in Bandung, Indonesia were determined for this study. This study used variance-based partial least squares (PLS) to evaluate the proposed model and examine the hypothesized relationship, by means of SmartPLS 3. The construct validity and reliability were evaluated by testing the measurement model, while the proposed hypotheses were examined by testing the structural model.

Findings

The assessment of the proposed model using PLS reveals that the incorporation of green trust model increases the prediction strength of green repurchase intentions model on green plastic products. Further, this study shows that, in general, gender did not moderate the formation of green repurchase intentions.

Research limitations/implications

Besides broadening the green repurchase intention theory, this finding offers a direction for green plastic businesses to improve their capability and their marketing strategies. This study offers an important contribution in understanding young consumers’ intentions to buy green plastic products, although it has several drawbacks. In the future, to increase its generalization, this study can be replicated on young consumers in other developing and developed countries, and this model can also be tested in other segments.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, there are no published studies that have tested the repurchase intention model for green plastic products, and none of the past studies have incorporated these models to explain repurchase intention toward green plastic products. Furthermore, the inclusion of gender roles in green repurchase intentions for green plastic products is important to be explored.

Keywords

Citation

Suhartanto, D., Kartikasari, A., Hapsari, R., Budianto, B.S., Najib, M. and Astor, Y. (2021), "Predicting young customers’ intention to repurchase green plastic products: incorporating trust model into purchase intention model", Journal of Asia Business Studies, Vol. 15 No. 3, pp. 441-456. https://doi.org/10.1108/JABS-04-2020-0150

Publisher

:

Emerald Publishing Limited

Copyright © 2020, Emerald Publishing Limited


Introduction

Disposable plastic packaging has been increasingly and widely consumed, although it is almost impossible to decompose and thus harmful to the environment and living creatures (Leal Filho et al., 2019). Because of its natural characteristic, to date, globally, only about 9% of plastic waste has been recycled while the rest have been dumped in landfills, flown into the sea or combusted (Geyer et al., 2017). Considering the negative effects of conventional plastic on the environment, there is growing awareness of the importance of consuming environmentally friendly plastic or green (biodegradable) plastic products (Van Rensburg et al., 2020). Unlike conventional plastic, green plastic can lessen greenhouse gas emissions throughout its production chain (Van Rensburg et al., 2020). However, as with other green products, the cost to produce green plastic is higher than for conventional plastic products (Leal Filho et al., 2019). As a result, the price of green plastic products is still high and their consumption levels are low (Van Rensburg et al., 2020). Therefore, understanding strategies to create customers trust and increase repurchase intention are important, not only for green plastic businesses, but also for the environment (Pahlevi and Suhartanto, 2020).

Having favorable customer behavior is essential to survive and be competitive in an eco-friendly market (Prakash and Pathak, 2017; Woo, 2019). Creating customer favorable behavior is important for any business as it sparks customers’ intention to repurchase and willingness to pay more even if the price increases (Dean and Suhartanto, 2019; Lu et al., 2020). Considering its importance, many studies have been devoted to examine the behavioral intention model and, arguably, quality-based behavioral intention model is one of the most widely adopted to explain customers’ future behavior (Chandra, 2019; Suhartanto et al., 2019). This model, proposing that perceived quality, perceived value and satisfaction are the antecedents of customer intention to repurchase, has been confirmed in many studies including in green products (Mohd Suki, 2015; Wang, 2017; Zhang et al., 2020). However, past studies (De Toni et al., 2017; Farias et al., 2019) indicate that adding new variables to the behavioral intention model can potentially raise the explanation strength of green repurchase intention. In other words, extending this model could provide a better prediction of customers’ intention to repurchase green products.

Recent studies in green products suggest that customer trust is an important aspect to induce customers to select a product as well as to influence their future behavior (Gupta et al., 2019; Marakanon and Panjakajornsak, 2017). To examine trust in an eco-friendly environment product, Chen (2013) proposes a green trust model, with green product quality, green perceived risk and green satisfaction as the drivers of consumers’ trust. The subsequent studies in green products (Cheung et al., 2015; Martínez, 2015; Pahlevi and Suhartanto, 2020) confirm the association between trust, product quality, perceived risk and satisfaction. Related to the quality-based behavioral intention model, the green trust model shares product quality and satisfaction as its drivers. In addition, other studies note that trust raises customer assertion and, subsequently, sparks their repurchase intention of the product (Martínez, 2015). This discussion implies that there is a connection between the green trust model and quality-based behavioral intention model. As consumer green behavior is complex (Shukla, 2019; Zhang et al., 2020), the integration of these two models hypothetically enhances the rationalization of customer repurchase intentions toward green plastic products.

Recent studies suggest that socio-demographic characteristics are important factors in influencing consumer behavior, but these have received less attention in the literature (Shapoval et al., 2018). To comprehend the green consumer behavior, researchers began to scrutinize gender roles (Allen and Spialek, 2018; Bhutto et al., 2019). For example, a recent study (Allen and Spialek, 2018) has shown that gender is the factor that affects the association involving customer experiences with products and their behaviors, such as repurchase and endorse intention. However, further studies on this issue have produced inconsistent results. For example, scholars revealed that gender influences behavioral intention formation in a service context (Lee, 2009; Shapoval et al., 2018), but Mattila (2000) found that gender does not significantly influence behavior. Another study in green products (Bhutto et al., 2019) reported a mixed result. Therefore, the influence of gender on the formation of green repurchase intentions is still not well understood. Thus, the inclusion of gender roles in green repurchase intentions for green plastic products is important to contribute to this debate.

Motivated by these research gaps, this study is aimed to gain a better comprehension of repurchase intention toward green plastic products, by integrating the green trust model into green repurchase intention and scrutinize the gender moderating role on the associations between variables in the green repurchase intention model. This study is conducted on young Indonesian consumers for two reasons. First, because of the seriousness of plastic pollution on the environment (Van Rensburg et al., 2020), there has been an increased understanding of the need to use green products among Indonesian consumers (Nielsen, 2014). However, green products are still perceived as expensive, which has prevented them from consuming more green products (Firmansyah, 2018). Second, because of the change in the demographic structure, Indonesia is one of the world’s youngest countries with approximately 97 million (31% of the population) being under 25 years old, and about 40% of this population will be of a working age by 2025 (Statista, 2020). Therefore, in the near future, the country’s young customers will be a huge potential market for green plastic products, and support for a more sustainable environment. With these considerations, examining young customers’ repurchase intentions is vital.

Literature review and hypotheses

Young green consumers

The influence of age on consumer perception has been widely studied. Acharya (2019) argues that consumer perception toward the environment is influenced by a person’s age while Hao et al. (2019) find evidence of diverse perspectives and preferences based on consumers’ age. Further, even young people act as consumers at a very young age, and these young consumers significantly influence family purchasing decisions (Acharya, 2019). As a result, young customers are an important and potential market for many products, including green products. Young consumers, 18–25 years old, for example, even with limited income and purchasing power, have a high interest in green products (Har et al., 2011). In addition, previous studies report that, compared to older consumers, younger ones tend to be different and less thrifty (Hao et al., 2019). They are also much more connected with others through social media technology and are interested in issues related to sustainability (Allen and Spialek, 2018). Regarding green behavior, young consumers tend to support the use of recyclable products and are concerned for products that are potentially damaging the environment (Suki and Suki, 2015). With these characteristics, young consumers are an interesting market for green products, and a traditional marketing strategy is not suitable for targeting this market (Acharya, 2019).

The literature on green behavior tends to focus on how young consumers engage in green products, while the factors that drive young consumers to consume green products receive less attention (Acharya, 2019; Prakash and Pathak, 2017). Tan et al. (2019) report that young consumers tend to be receptive to new ideas linked to care and environmental protection, compared to older people. However, because their income is limited, their consumption of green products is also relatively small (Acharya, 2019). In terms of region, many studies on green consumers have been carried out in developed countries (Allen and Spialek, 2018; Shukla, 2019), while studies in developing countries, such as Indonesia, are minimal. Studies on green products in developing countries, with a large proportion of young consumers, rarely get attention (Allen and Spialek, 2018; Tan et al., 2019). Therefore, a study to identify factors determining young consumers repurchase intention toward green plastic products is very important, as it can help green businesses to develop appropriate strategies to get loyal young customers, and potentially contribute to making a better environment.

Green repurchase intention model

Green repurchase intention, an element of green behavioral intention (Chaudhary and Bisai, 2018; Woo, 2019), is a critical factor in explaining an individual’s buying behavior toward a green product in the future. Green repurchase intention is the tendency of consumers to buy green products in the future (De Toni et al., 2017; Wu et al., 2015). This intention to behave is a strong indicator of future green buying behavior (Chaudhary and Bisai, 2018; Shukla, 2019). Although this intention is not identical to actual purchase, the intention to repurchase green products can be used to determine the tendency of the customer’s green buying behavior (Wang, 2017). Green repurchase intention, if compared to past purchase, is a relatively accurate method for predicting customers’ future green buying behavior (Chaudhary and Bisai, 2018; Zhang et al., 2020). This discussion implies that understanding what factors lead to customer repurchase intention is important for green businesses (Farias et al., 2019; Woo, 2019).

The early model that explains purchase intention and behavioral intention in general, is based on the theory of reasoned action (Ajzen, 2005) that was further developed as the theory of planned behavior (Fishbein and Ajzen, 2010). The recent development in consumer behavioral studies suggests a quality-based behavioral intention model to explain customers’ behavior (Chandra, 2019; Suhartanto et al., 2019). Based on the cognitive-rational behavioral approach, Cronin et al. (2000) propose a quality-based behavioral intention model, suggesting that the drivers of behavioral intention are product quality, perceived value and satisfaction. If the quality of a product is what consumers experience with product performance and value is their assessment on the benefits the product offered, subsequently, the perceived value and the quality of the product impact on customer satisfaction. Recent studies in green products (Pahlevi and Suhartanto, 2020; Shapoval et al., 2018; Zhang et al., 2020) verify the links between quality, perceived value, satisfaction and behavioral intention. From the managerial perspective, this purchase intention model offers a useful direction for management practices (Chandra, 2019). Thus, this study embraces this model to explain young customer repurchase intention toward green plastic products.

Green perceived quality is a vital element in influencing customer behavior toward green products and in sustaining customer relationship programs (De Toni et al., 2017). Zeithaml (1988, p. 3) explains perceived quality as “the customer’s assessment about a product’s overall environmental excellence or superiority.” The perceived quality of green products is a consumer assessment of the advantage of a green product founded on the customers’ experience with the product. The green perceived product’s superiority not only results from the evaluation of the green product purchased, but also refers to other green product alternatives. Cheung et al. (2015) examine green perceived quality as associated with reliable, environmentally sustainable, durable, professional, related to the environment and with an excellent image. While Marakanon and Panjakajornsak (2017) associated green perceived quality with reliability, performance, safety and worthiness of the green product.

Green perceived value refers to a contrast between the customers’ sacrifice with the benefits they get from the green products they bought (Chen, 2013; Woo, 2019). Consumers will feel that they are being treated fairly, and that they will be satisfied and loyal, if they believe that the proportion between the sacrifice they make and the benefits they receive is at least balanced (Suhartanto et al., 2019). What consumers receive includes all the benefits obtained from consuming the green products, while what consumers sacrifice is not limited to money, but also includes the energy and time spent to get the product. The relationship between green perceived quality and green perceived value has been well examined in previous studies, indicating that the relationship between these factors is positive (Cheung et al., 2015; Konuk, 2018). While previous studies have tested the association between product quality and value in green plastic products, this study proposes a new green repurchase intention model, consequently the association between the variables in the proposed model need to be tested. Thus, the hypothesis below is formulated.

H1.

Perceived product quality positively influences green perceived value.

Green satisfaction refers to a customer’s response after buying the green product. Shapoval et al. (2018) believe that customers will be satisfied if they feel the performance of the green product bought is higher than their expectations and vice versa. The definition of green satisfaction suggests that green satisfaction reflects a green product capability to fulfill a customer’s needs of environmentally friendly products. Studies in green products (Chen, 2013; Konuk, 2018) suggest that green satisfaction is mainly determined by the quality and value of the green product. Past studies report that quality and value have a direct influence on behavioral intention, and in green product studies, scholars (Konuk, 2018; Marakanon and Panjakajornsak, 2017) note that quality affects behavioral intention via reinforcing perceived value and customer satisfaction. The argument for this indirect relationship is that quality will influence repurchase intention only if the customer is satisfied. This discussion leads to the following hypotheses:

H2.

Green perceived quality positively influences green satisfaction.

H3.

Green perceived value positively influences green satisfaction.

Green trust model

Green trust is another key concept for understanding green consumer behavior, as it is the reason why a consumer prefers a certain green product over the others (Chen, 2013). Gupta et al. (2019) maintain that green trust indicates the degree of confidence that the producer of the green product will and can fulfill its promises related to the product as well as to the environment. Martínez (2015) explains green trust as a person’s willingness to exchange with parties he or she believes are reliable and have concern toward the environment. Based on these affirmations, customers will trust if a firm can demonstrate that its green product is safe for both the customer and the environment. Thus, trust can protect customers from vagueness in the process of purchasing green products.

Chen (2013) proposed and examined a trust model for green products and determined that quality, satisfaction, value and risk are significant drivers of customer trust toward a green product. His model suggests that the core element of the model is offering a high-quality green product or service. A high-quality green product is perceived as high value and, subsequently, can satisfy the customers’ expectations for an environmentally friendly product. Through the consumption experience, customers will gain trust in the green product. The empirical evidence from the subsequent studies (Cheung et al., 2015; Gupta et al., 2019; Konuk, 2018) offer evidence that green product quality affects favorably on satisfaction and, indirectly, on customers’ trust toward a green product.

Green perceived risk is another important factor in the green trust model. Purchasing a green product often comes with risks that cannot be anticipated prior to purchasing it. In the green product context, the perceived risks, i.e. physical, functional, social, psychological and financial, are the possibilities that consumers will face when purchasing green products (Chen, 2013; Pahlevi and Suhartanto, 2020). The higher the customer’s perceived risk, the more they face uncertainty of their purchase (Wang, 2017). The uncertainty because of the risk of purchasing and consuming the product often makes consumers reluctant to try other green products (Sun et al., 2018). With the flood of information from both online and offline sources, customers are more exposed to the risks of consuming green products. However, if they have had positive experiences in using the product and were satisfied, the perceived risk in using green products will decrease. Past studies (Chen, 2013; Wu et al., 2015) report that perceived risk has a negative influence on customer satisfaction toward green products. This discussion leads to the formulation of these hypotheses:

H4.

Green perceived quality negatively influences green perceived risk.

H5.

Green perceived risk negatively influences green satisfaction.

In both models, customer satisfaction has a very important role in determining green repurchase intention and green trust. The models suggest that satisfaction with the green product will lead to customer trust (Chen, 2013; Cheung et al., 2015; Konuk et al., 2015) and, subsequently, will affect repurchase intention (Konuk et al., 2015; Zhang et al., 2020). Further, past research reveals that green trust impacts positively on green purchase intention (Konuk et al., 2015; Marakanon and Panjakajornsak, 2017). This association has also been reported by Mohd Suki (2015). As such, the subsequent hypotheses are formulated:

H6.

Green satisfaction positively influences green trust.

H7.

Green satisfaction positively influences green repurchase intention.

H8.

Green trust positively influences green repurchase intention.

The integration of the green trust model and the green repurchase intention model toward green plastic products is depicted in Figure 1.

Role of gender moderation

Mattila (2000) argues that gender is an important factor that influences consumer behavior. Lee (2009) states that men and women have fundamental differences on how to define and interpret the meaning and the role of gender. These differences are because men and women have different experiences and social role developments (Shapoval et al., 2018). Although Mattila (2000) shows that there is no difference in the link between satisfaction and loyalty based on gender, previous research related to the environment shows that men and women have different perceptions, needs and interests toward the environment (Bhutto et al., 2019). Further, Gracia et al. (2012) reported that women, compared to men, tend to have a better understanding of ethical and environmental issues. Lee (2009), in Hong Kong, revealed that female adolescents care more about the environment than males do. They care more about the environment even if they face limitations in terms of money, time and self-efficacy. According to the social role theory (Archer, 1996; Eagly, 1987), this difference is because women, compared to men, have a social role that makes them more affectionate, interdependent, cooperative and caring for others, including the environment. Thus, the moderation role of gender is hypothesized as follows:

H9.

The association between the variables in the integrated model of green repurchase intention is moderated by gender.

Research methods

Because past research has assessed construct variables used in this study, the construct measurements in this study refer to the extant literature. Based on scholars’ work (Cheung et al., 2015; Konuk, 2018; Marakanon and Panjakajornsak, 2017), green perceived quality is measured by using eight items including durability, reliability, a professional look, excellent image and safety of the product. Three items such as a comparison between cost and benefit obtained from the green product (Cheung et al., 2015; Konuk, 2018; Woo, 2019) were used to assess green perceived value. Green perceived risk is measured by the risk of social, physical, functional, financial and psychological (Marakanon and Panjakajornsak, 2017; Wang, 2017). Satisfaction toward green plastics was measured by three items (Kang and Hur, 2012; Martínez, 2015), while trust toward green plastic was assessed by four items (Chen, 2013; Cheung et al., 2015). Repurchase intention and intention to repurchase if the price increases (Wang, 2017; Wu et al., 2015) were used to measure green repurchase intention. A five-point Likert scale of “1: strongly disagree and 5: strongly agree” was used to assess the constructs variables. To warrant that the intention of the questions and instructions were clearly understood by respondents, the questionnaires were tested on 20 young customers who have repurchased green plastic products before being used. This questionnaire testing resulted in minor adjustments to the wording of the questionnaire.

Young consumers’ experience in consuming green plastic products is the focus of this study. For gathering the data, as it is difficult to list the population of young green customers, this study did not use random sampling but instead applied purposive sampling. Data from young consumers were collected from the greater Bandung region in Indonesia, from January to February 2020. Following previous research (Acharya, 2019; Prakash and Pathak, 2017), in this study, young consumers are defined as consumers aged between 18 and 24 years old. The respondents were contacted in parks, universities and city squares. Before being requested to answer the self-administered questionnaire, and to ensure that the potential respondents are suitable for this study, they were asked their age and experience in purchasing green plastic products. Of the 356 participants, 314 returned responses that were useful for further analysis. With this sample size, the minimum sample requirement for testing the model using partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM), 25 times the number of indicators, as suggested by Kline (2015), is satisfied. The sample consists of 150 (48%) male respondents and 64 (52%) female respondents. Among the respondents, 81% are students and the rest are employees, entrepreneurs, housewives and others. Related to the product used, 41% of the respondents had used green products between one to two years ago, 40% had used products less than one year ago and the rest (20%) had used products for more than three years before the survey.

Variance-based PLS-SEM was used in this study to evaluate the proposed model and examine the hypothesized relationship by means of SmartPLS 3. The construct validity and reliability were evaluated by measurement model examination, while the proposed hypotheses were examined by testing the structural model. Because this study is mainly intended to validate theory (green repurchase intention) as well as scrutinize the links between constructs in the proposed conceptual model, the use of PLS-SEM is appropriate (Hair et al., 2017; Tan et al., 2018). Further, PLS-SEM is a suitable method if the data is not normally distributed, as in case studies (Hair et al., 2017).

Results

Measurement model

To examine common method variance, Kock and Lynn (2012) recommend assessing full collinearity variance inflation factors (VIFs). Adopting their recommendation, testing full collinearity VIFs results in the value of 2.894, below the suggested value of 5 (Hair et al., 2017), indicating that common method variance is not an issue. Following this VIFs assessment, the measurement model testing was conducted to evaluate construct reliability and validity. The result of the measurement model check is depicted in Table 1.

To evaluate the model’s internal consistency, Hair et al. (2017) endorse Cronbach’s’ alpha and Dijkstra–Henseler’s rho (RhoA) with a cut-off value of 0.7. Table 2 notes that the reliability requirements for all the construct variables are met. Next, the average variance extracted (AVE) value of all construct variables is more than the suggested value of 0.5 (Hair et al., 2017), suggesting that the convergent validity requirement is also met. Henseler et al. (2015) believe construct discriminant validity requirement is satisfied if the value of heterotrait–monotrait (HTMT) ratio of correlations is less than 0.9. Referring to this contention, as shown in Table 2, this study has met the suggested criteria.

Structural model

This study used 5,000 samples in the bootstrapping method to test the structural model as recommended by Hair et al. (2017). This research evaluates goodness-of-fit (GoF) to validate the partial least squares model, indicating that the proposed model was good as its GoF value is 0.434 (Hair et al., 2017). Besides GoF, the model was assessed using standardized residual root mean square (SRMR) and normed fit index (NFI). The results show a SRMR value of 0.069 (cut-off value of 0.8) and NFI of 0.727 (cut-off values above 0.9). These model assessments indicate that the NFI criterion of a good model is not fully fulfilled. As only one test does not meet the requirements of model fit, thus overall, the model is relatively satisfactory. In addition, the confidence interval bias corrected check (Table 3) indicates that none of the intervals (2.5% and 97.5%) has a value 1, suggesting that the constructs are distinct and the requirement of discriminant validity has been met (Tan and Ooi, 2018).

The data analysis shows that testing on the green repurchase intention model shows that quality, value and satisfaction can predict 36.1% (R2: 0.361) of the variance of repurchase intention. However, when the other components of the green trust model (risk and trust) were integrated in the model, the results show that all of the green repurchase intention drivers explain 41.2% (R2: 0.41.2) of the variance of green repurchase intention. This change in R2 value suggests that the integration of the green trust model into quality-based behavioral intention could increase the explanation power of customer repurchase intention. Hair et al. (2017), when assessing predictive relevance, suggest the value of Q2 to be no more than zero. The result of testing Q2 reveal values of 0.093, 0.271, 0.295 and 0.197, respectively, on the perceived risk, satisfaction, trust and repurchase intention, suggesting that the exogenous variables have predictive relevance for the endogenous variable. Thus, overall, the result of testing the model in this study is robust.

Following Hair et al.’s (2017) suggestion, this study uses 5,000 bootstrap samples to assess the path coefficients. Table 3 confirms that the direct impact of green perceived quality on green perceived value (β = 0.371) and on green satisfaction (β = 0.328) is significant (p <0.01); thus, H1 and H2 are supported. Further, the direct impact of green perceived value on green satisfaction (β = 0.236) is also significant (p <0.01), signifying the support for H3. Next, H4 and H5 are also supported as the link between green perceived quality and green perceived risk (β = −0.455) as well as between green perceived risk and green satisfaction (β = −0.185) are significant (p < 0.01). The effect of green satisfaction on green trust (β = 0.586) and on green repurchase intention (β = 0.248) is significant (p < 0.01). Thus, H6 and H7 are supported. Finally, H8 is also supported as the effect of green trust on green repurchase intention (β = 0.332) is also significant (p < 0.01) (Figure 2).

Testing the gender moderating role

To assess the differences between the paths in the integrated green repurchase intention based on gender, a multi-group analysis was conducted as recommended by Henseler et al. (2015). The result (Table 4) shows that β differences between the path across male and female samples are too small and insignificant (p > 0.05), excluding the association between perceived quality and perceived value (β differences = 0.191, p < 0.05). Therefore, H9 is supported only for the association between perceived quality and perceived value. In other words, overall, there is no difference between males and females on the link among the determinants of repurchase intention as well as between the repurchase intention and its determinants.

Discussion and theoretical implications

This study examines the green repurchase intention model of green plastic products among young customers by incorporating the green trust model. The results indicate that the green trust model and the green repurchase intention model are well integrated. The incorporation of the green trust model into the green repurchase intention model increases the explanation power of green repurchase intentions toward green plastic products. This finding is important because it expands the existing green trust model (Chen, 2013), as well as the green repurchase intention model of green plastic products (Pahlevi and Suhartanto, 2020; Wang, 2017), from the perspective of young customers. These findings indicate that in green plastic products, the presence of green perceived quality, green perceived value, green perceived risk and green satisfaction simultaneously strengthens young customers’ trust which, ultimately, encourages them to buy green plastic products in the future. Theoretically, this study offers a new incorporated green repurchase intention model for environmentally friendly plastic products among young customers. As such, the future studies on green plastic products must incorporate all the identified determinants of green repurchase intentions.

Further, the finding of this study notes that the green trust influence on green repurchase intention is stronger than that of green satisfaction. However, the influence of green satisfaction on green trust is also significant. Thus, this study accentuates the vital role of green customer satisfaction in influencing if a young customer will trust and repurchase green plastic products in the future. The important role of satisfying young customers in creating their trust and favorable repurchase behavior in the future verifies the result of past studies in green consumer behavior (Chen, 2013; Mohd Suki, 2015; Zhang et al., 2020). Further, as green customer satisfaction is more affected by green product quality rather than by green perceived value and perceived risk, this study emphasizes the vital role of offering a high-quality green plastic product to satisfy young customers. The significance of perceived quality compared to other variables in influencing customer satisfaction corroborates the existing green consumer studies (Chen, 2013; Hao et al., 2019; Shapoval et al., 2018). This result shows that young customers experiencing a quality green plastic product tend to believe that the purchased product is reliable and safe for their health and for the environment. Theoretically, this finding validates the green trust model (Chen, 2013; Cheung et al., 2015) in green plastic products as well as in the context of young customers.

Lastly, the results of the comparison test between male and female samples suggest that overall, males and females tend to be similar in terms of the relationships among green repurchase intention and its determinants. While past studies highlight the differences on expectation, attitude and behavior toward green products between males and females (Bhutto et al., 2019; Shukla, 2019), this study supports Mattila’s (2000) finding that there are no gender-based differences in the impact of customer attitude on customer behavior. The similarity between males and females on the relationship between the variables in the green repurchase intention model could be related to the respondents’ characteristics in this study who mainly are students. As most students in Indonesia go to co-education schools, they tend to receive similar social development and experiences related to green plastic during their study-related activities. This similar exposure to experience environmental issues may have caused their attitude and perception to be more or less similar (Shapoval et al., 2018). Also, as their social roles related to the environment are similar, their perceptions and intentions toward green plastic products tend to not be different. Theoretically, this study provides empirical evidence on social role theory (Archer, 1996; Eagly, 1987), suggesting that males and females tend to be similar in their perception of green plastic products.

Managerial implications

The result of this study underscores the significance of developing a high green plastic quality and customer trust to stimulate customer intention to repurchase. First, to assure that their green plastic products are reliable and have benefits for both customers and the environment, green plastic managers must label their products with environmental claims that are supported by green certification. Furthermore, the managers must make sure that their green plastic products have better quality than conventional plastic products. For this purpose, endless improvement of the product could also provide a signal of a good quality product and make the product attractive. As green plastic products have an important role in reducing greenhouse gas emissions, to overcome the higher prices of green plastic products because of high production costs, governments need to issue policies that favor green plastic products by, for example, providing tax incentives.

Second, because green plastic products offer benefits not only for consumers but also for the environment and, indirectly, for society, managers need to communicate these benefits to young customers through both online and offline marketing campaigns. To build consumer confidence in its green products, participation in green forum activities as well as sponsoring green environment projects are also important. In addition to developing trust among young customers, managers need to use experts as advocates to promote their products. The use of this endorser can convince customers that, even though the price is higher compared to conventional plastic, green plastic helps create a better and healthier biophysical environment. In addition, because males and females tend to not be significantly different, differentiation marketing strategies toward green products based on gender for young customers are not necessary.

Limitations and future research

This research offers a significant contribution in apprehending young consumers’ intentions to buy green plastic products, although it has several drawbacks. Because this study is limited to young customers in Indonesia, the findings of this study may have limitations in terms of its generalization to other young customers in other parts of the world. In the future, to increase its generalization, this study can be replicated on young consumers in other developing and developed countries. Next, the intention to buy green plastic products in this model can also be tested in other segments, such as millennials or comparing models between millennial and young customers. Furthermore, this study uses product quality, perceived value, perceived risk and trust as the drivers of satisfaction, trust and repurchase intention. The R2 values in this study indicate that there are other variables that could potentially influence satisfaction, trust and repurchase intention. In the future, variables such as image and demographics, and other factors besides gender can be included in the model. The integrated repurchase intention model proposed in this study can also be tested on other green products or services, for example green transportation, green clothing, green hotels and organic food.

Figures

The incorporated model of green repurchase intention

Figure 1

The incorporated model of green repurchase intention

The result of testing the incorporated green repurchase intention

Figure 2

The result of testing the incorporated green repurchase intention

Measurement model indicators

Loading** α RhoA AVE
Green perceived quality 0.843 0.851 0.518
The products show concern of the environment 0.758
The products are reliable 0.627
The products show environmentally friendly image 0.444
The products can help the environment preservation 0.755
The products use green packaging 0.770
The products are durable 0.761
The products are made from safe ingredients 0.644
Overall quality of the product 0.707
Green perceived value 0.754 0.766 0.667
The products have more benefits than the cost 0.793
The products show care for the environment 0.866
The products have beneficial qualities to the environment 0.789
Perceived risk 0.818 0.832 0.579
The products do not function properly 0.695
The products will endanger health 0.809
The products will damage your reputation 0.818
The products could harm other people 0.764
The products will experience cost loss 0.711
Satisfaction 0.814 0.819 0.729
Glad to use the products 0.829
Purchasing the product is the right decision 0.879
Overall satisfaction with the product 0.853
Green trust 0.790 0.792 0.614
Products reputation 0.771
Products reliability 0.773
Products are truly green 0.820
The environmental commitments of the producers 0.770
Green repurchase intention 0.804 0.804 0.674
Intention to repurchase in the future 0.848
Intention to repurchase no matter the price 0.755
Note:

**Significant at p < 0.01

HTMT ratio of correlations

1 2 3 4 5
(1) Green perceived quality
(2) Green perceived value 0.426
(3) Green satisfaction 0.4453 0.512
(4) Green trust 0.633 0.716 0.549
(5) Green perceived risk 0.478 0.343 0.438 0.561
(6) Green repurchase intention 0.375 0.456 0.675 0.622 0.391

The result of hypotheses testing

Path (hypothesis) β t-value Bias 2.5% 97.5%
Green perceived quality -> green perceived value (H1) 0.371 7.042** 0.004 0.122 0.365
Green perceived quality -> green satisfaction (H2) 0.328 5.852** −0.001 0.479 0.663
Green perceived value -> green satisfaction (H3) 0.236 4.249** 0.002 −0.292 −0.051
Green perceived quality -> green perceived Risk (H4) −0.455 11.602** 0.001 0.216 0.429
Green perceived risk -> green satisfaction (H5) −0.185 2.933** −0.004 −0.529 −0.372
Green satisfaction -> green trust (H6) 0.586 12.112** 0.002 0.251 0.459
Green satisfaction -> Green repurchase intention (H7) 0.248 4.084** 0.002 0.116 0.331
Green trust -> green repurchase intention (H8) 0.332 6.171** −0.003 0.223 0.432
Note:

**Significant at p < 0.01

Multi-group analysis result

Path β Differences
Male Female β T-value
Green perceived quality -> green perceived value 0.494 0.303 0.191 0.015*
Green perceived quality -> green satisfaction 0.464 0.267 0.197 0.068
Green perceived value -> green satisfaction 0.144 0.295 0.151 0.874
Green perceived quality -> green perceived risk −0.576 −0.396 0.180 0.992
Green perceived risk -> green satisfaction −0.055 −0.265 0.210 0.059
Green satisfaction -> green trust 0.637 0.560 0.077 0.184
Green satisfaction -> green repurchase intention 0.130 0.292 0.162 0.887
Green trust -> green repurchase intention 0.415 0.315 0.100 0.188
Note:

*Significant at p < 0.05

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Corresponding author

Raditha Hapsari can be contacted at: raditha.hapsari@ub.ac.id

About the authors

Dwi Suhartanto is based at the Department of Business Administration, Politeknik Negeri Bandung, Bandung, Indonesia. He is a Professor in Marketing at the Business Administration Department, Politeknik Negeri Bandung, Indonesia. His research interests include consumer behavior, hospitality and tourism and green products. His works have been published in various reputable journals including Journal of Cleaner Production, Journal of Business Research and Current Issues in Tourism.

Ani Kartikasari is based at the Department of Global Value Chain and Trade, Lincoln University, Lincoln, New Zealand. She has a PhD in environmental management, with a specific focus on human interaction with nature. She is the Director of the Yunus Centre for Social Business at Lincoln University in New Zealand where she teaches courses for the Master of Business and Master of International Rural Development. Integral to these programs is the sustainability principles in the whole value changes system and inclusive business models that must be economically feasible, environmentally workable and socially acceptable locally globally. She actively researches into social entrepreneurship, through eco-tourism, green consumer behavior, value-adding activities and poverty alleviation projects.

Raditha Hapsari is based at the Department of Management, Universitas Brawijaya, Malang, Indonesia. She is a Lecturer in the Department of Management, Faculty of Economics and Business, Universitas Brawijaya, Indonesia. Her research interests include services marketing, brand management, consumer behavior, tourism and green marketing. She has authored some books’ articles and published her work in some quality-assured journals.

Bambang Setio Budianto is based at the Department of Civil Engineering, Politeknik Negeri Bandung, Bandung, Indonesia. He is an Associate Professor in the Civil Engineering Department, Politeknik Negeri Bandung, Indonesia. His research interests include water resources, environmental protection and green products. His works have been published in various reputable engineering journals.

Mukhamad Najib is based at the Department of Management, Institut Pertanian Bogor, Bogor, Indonesia. He is an Associate Professor in the Management Department, Institut Pertanian Bogor, Indonesia. His research interests include food marketing, agricultural marketing, consumer studies and business strategy. He has published some articles in various reputable journals.

Yackob Astor is based at the Department of Civil Engineering, Politeknik Negeri Bandung, Bandung, Indonesia. He is a Lecturer and Researcher at the Department of Civil Engineering, Politeknik Negeri Bandung, Indonesia. His research interests include sustainable environment, agri-tourism, development of coastal area, marine cadasters and geographic information. He has published some articles in various quality-assured journals.

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