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Research trends in flipped classroom empirical evidence from 2017 to 2018: A content analysis

Zamzami Zainuddin (Faculty of Education, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, Hong Kong)
Yin Zhang (Ocean University of China, Qingdao, Shandong, China and University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, Hong Kong)
Xiuhan Li (University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, Hong Kong)
Samuel Kai Wah Chu (University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, Hong Kong)
Saifullah Idris (Universitas Islam Negeri Ar-Raniry, Banda Aceh, Indonesia)
Cut Muftia Keumala (Sekolah Tinggi Ilmu Ekonomi Lhokseumawe, Lhokseumawe, Aceh, Indonesia)

Interactive Technology and Smart Education

ISSN: 1741-5659

Article publication date: 7 June 2019

Issue publication date: 21 August 2019




This paper aims to analyze the trends and contents of flipped classroom research based on 48 selected empirical articles published during 2017 and 2018.


The inductive content analysis was used as a methodology to investigate the content of flipped classroom research, including subject-specific areas, methodological approaches, technology tools or platforms, the most frequently used trending searches, countries of research, positive impacts and challenges.


The results of the analysis were interpreted using descriptive analysis, percentages and frequencies. This analysis found that various subjects were implemented in flipped classroom learning, and some technological tools were also used to enhance teaching and learning. Analysis of the impact revealed that the flipped classroom yielded positive learning outcomes on students’ learning activities such as learning motivation and engagement, social interaction and self-directed learning skills. Meanwhile, the most significant challenges encountered by the instructor were the lack of students’ motivation to watch pre-recorded video lectures or to study the contents outside of the class time.


The findings suggest that the flipped classroom concept might be effective in promoting twenty-first-century learning skills and developing the technology and information literacy competency based on national standards.



Zainuddin, Z., Zhang, Y., Li, X., Chu, S.K.W., Idris, S. and Keumala, C.M. (2019), "Research trends in flipped classroom empirical evidence from 2017 to 2018: A content analysis", Interactive Technology and Smart Education, Vol. 16 No. 3, pp. 255-277.



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