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Novel fractional hybrid impedance control of series elastic muscle-tendon actuator

Mohammad Javad Fotuhi (Department of Mechatronics Engineering, Kocaeli University, Kocaeli, Turkey)
Zafer Bingul (Department of Mechatronics Engineering, Kocaeli University, Kocaeli, Turkey)

Industrial Robot

ISSN: 0143-991x

Article publication date: 8 April 2021

Issue publication date: 19 August 2021




This paper aims to develope a novel fractional hybrid impedance control (FHIC) approach for high-sensitive contact stress force tracking control of the series elastic muscle-tendon actuator (SEM-TA) in uncertain environments.


In three different cases, the fractional parameters of the FHIC were optimized with the particle swarm optimization algorithm. Its adaptability to the pressure of the sole of the foot on real environments such as grass (soft), carpet (medium) and solid floors (hard) is far superior to traditional impedance control. The main aim of this paper is to derive the dynamic simulation models of the SEM-TA, to develop a control architecture allowing for high-sensitive contact stress force control in three cases and to verify the simulation models and the proposed controller with experimental results. The performance of the optimized controllers was evaluated according to these parameters, namely, maximum overshoot, steady-state error, settling time and root mean squared errors of the positions. Moreover, the frequency robustness analysis of the controllers was made in three cases.


Different simulations and experimental results were conducted to verify the control performance of the controllers. According to the comparative results of the performance, the responses of the proposed controller in simulation and experimental works are very similar.


Origin approach and origin experiment.



The authors would like to thanks the Presidency for Turks Abroad and Related Communities, Turkey for the PhD scholarship.

Moreover, they thank the Scientific Research Projects Coordination Unit of Kocaeli University for the experimental setup support.

Conflict of interest: No potential conflict of interest was reported by the authors.


Fotuhi, M.J. and Bingul, Z. (2021), "Novel fractional hybrid impedance control of series elastic muscle-tendon actuator", Industrial Robot, Vol. 48 No. 4, pp. 532-543.



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