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A formal model for embedded brain reading

Elsa Andrea Kirchner (German Research Center for Artificial Intelligence (DFKI), Bremen, Germany)
Rolf Drechsler (German Research Center for Artificial Intelligence (DFKI), Bremen, Germany)

Industrial Robot

ISSN: 0143-991x

Article publication date: 14 October 2013




The presented work contributes to research in the field of advanced man-machine interaction and to research in the field of formalisation and verification of complex systems. This work was motivated by the need to provide a detailed and well understandable formal description of embedded brain reading (eBR). The paper aims to discuss these issues.


The paper first introduces eBR and points out its main features. Next, a general model for eBR is developed to describe the overall architecture, integral parts and dependencies between those parts. The model is developed and presented in a formal structured form that allows for application of optimisation as well as verification techniques.


The paper demonstrates using implementations that the application of the formal model allows to check for completeness and correctness to detect errors in implementation, which were invisible without formalising eBR. In summary, the presented work contributes a formal model for a complex system and shows that such a formal model can improve the overall system's functionality.

Research limitations/implications

For future work, the results support the application of formal modelling and verification techniques at the system level and the development of methods to prove for correctness and completeness of complex systems during their development.


The paper describes for the first time eBR and presents a formal model for it. It illustrates how an error-prone approach like BR can be applied safely by embedding it into the control of a real system and by applying mechanisms that control for its correct function.



This work was supported in part by the German Ministry of Economics and Technology (Grant No. 50 RA 1011 and Grant No. 50 RA 1012) and the German Research Foundation (DFG) within the Reinhart Koselleck project under contract no. DR 287/23-1.


Andrea Kirchner, E. and Drechsler, R. (2013), "A formal model for embedded brain reading", Industrial Robot, Vol. 40 No. 6, pp. 530-540.



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Copyright © 2013, Emerald Group Publishing Limited

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