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Capturing behavioural outcomes through branded applications: the perspective of the investment model

Timmy H. Tseng (Department of Business Administration, Fu Jen Catholic University, New Taipei City, Taiwan)
Sara H. Hsieh (Department of Business Administration, Tunghai University, Taichung, Taiwan)
Crystal T. Lee (Business School, Shantou University, Shantou, China)

Internet Research

ISSN: 1066-2243

Article publication date: 21 December 2021

Issue publication date: 7 September 2022




Numerous companies have launched branded applications to foster consumer–brand relationships. Due to fierce competition among branded apps, the retention rate is quite low. The facilitation of behavioural outcomes through branded apps is a highly relevant research area. This paper investigates the drivers of behavioural outcomes in the context of branded apps from an investment model perspective.


This work examines various branded apps primarily used by consumers in disparate product categories, namely, Target, Walmart, Under Armour, Nike, Pandora, Spotify, Starbucks, Burger King, Disney and Netflix. Four hundred and one valid online questionnaires were obtained and partial least squares structural equation modelling was used for data analysis.


The results obtained extend the investment model to the context of branded apps and show that app investment size and app satisfaction facilitate brand relationship commitment, successively enhancing app continuance intention, brand purchase intention and app word-of-mouth (WOM) intention. Furthermore, app confidence benefits and self-enhancement benefits facilitate app satisfaction, while app social benefits and special treatment benefits facilitate app investment size.


The present work applies an investment model to various branded apps to show how relationship components facilitate behavioural outcomes. We contribute to the literature by identifying four types of app relational benefits as drivers of relationship components in the context of branded apps.



This work was supported by the Ministry of Science and Technology, Taiwan, Grant [MOST 108-2410-H-030-080] and by the Shantou University, STU Scientific Research Initiation Grant Grant [STF20010]. The authors would like to thank three anonymous referees of this journal for their constructive comments, the editor, and the associate editor for their support and encouragement. The authors would like to acknowledge the proceeding of American Marketing Association (AMA) Summer Academic Conference entitled “Examining antecedents of branded application loyalty from the perspective of investment model ” written by Timmy H. Tseng, Crystal T. Lee, and Sara H. Hsieh, on which this manuscript is developed upon.


Tseng, T.H., Hsieh, S.H. and Lee, C.T. (2022), "Capturing behavioural outcomes through branded applications: the perspective of the investment model", Internet Research, Vol. 32 No. 5, pp. 1532-1561.



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