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The role of advertising, distribution intensity and store image in achieving global brand loyalty in an emerging market

Le Dang Lang (Ho Chi Minh City Open University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam)
Abhishek Behl (Management Development Institute, Gurgaon, India)
Francisco Guzmán (Department of Marketing, G. Brint Ryan College of Business, University of North Texas, Denton, Texas, USA)
Vijay Pereira (NEOMA Business School, Reims, France)
Manlio Del Giudice (University of Rome (Link Campus), Rome, Italy)

International Marketing Review

ISSN: 0265-1335

Article publication date: 2 December 2022

Issue publication date: 27 February 2023




Scholars have paid considerable attention to the importance of brand loyalty of durable consumer products in developed markets. However, no study has investigated the simultaneous impact of advertising efforts, distribution intensity and store image on global brand loyalty (GBL) of fast-moving consumer goods (FMCG) in emerging markets. This study aims to fill this gap.


This study adopts (1) established theoretical lenses: brand equity, marketing mix and cue utilization theories, (2) a mixed-methods approach: a focus group and two surveys and (3) structural equation modeling on two samples of consumers (one homogeneous and one heterogeneous) of global soft drink brands in Vietnam.


The study reveals significant and nonsignificant relationships among the selected marketing mix elements and brand loyalty and its antecedents of global FMCG. Slight differences in these relationships among the two samples are found. The existing scales are also reconciled with more suitable indicators. The results significantly contribute to the existing knowledge on marketing mix, brand equity and GBL, and global consumer culture.


This is the first study to investigate the simultaneous effects of advertising efforts, distribution intensity, and store image on brand loyalty and its antecedents of global FMCG in an emerging market. The findings will help practitioners develop suitable global branding strategies to manage global brand image and achieve consumer loyalty across emerging markets.



The authors wish to thank Mr. Tran Bao Minh - the Vice Chairman of Nutifood Corporation (Vietnam) for his support on the study. The authors also wish to convey their sincere appreciation to the editor and anonymous reviewers for the effort and time that they have invested in providing constructive reviews despite the challenges of COVID-19 that helped us to substantially improve the quality of our manuscript.


Lang, L.D., Behl, A., Guzmán, F., Pereira, V. and Del Giudice, M. (2023), "The role of advertising, distribution intensity and store image in achieving global brand loyalty in an emerging market", International Marketing Review, Vol. 40 No. 1, pp. 127-154.



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