The purpose of this paper is to investigate, theoretically and empirically, the role of the six dimensions of reconceptualized ethnocentrism in consumer ethnocentrism. The paper investigates both direct and indirect effects of the six dimensions on consumer ethnocentrism, through four theoretically meaningful mediators: nationalism, ethnic ingroup positivity, national ingroup positivity and prejudice against foreigners.
This study has used primary data collected from 304 US citizens through online surveys, including measures of demographics, ethnocentrism, consumer ethnocentrism, nationalism and attitudes toward ethnic ingroups, national ingroups and foreigners. Correlational, sequential multiple regression and parallel multiple mediation analyses were conducted to investigate effects of the dimensions of ethnocentrism on consumer ethnocentrism.
Regression and mediation analyses, covarying age, education, gender, ethnicity and socio-economic status, showed that ethnocentric purity had a direct effect on consumer ethnocentrism, whereas ethnocentric devotion and exploitativeness had indirect effects, entirely mediated by nationalism. There were no significant effects of the other dimensions of ethnocentrism, ethnic ingroup positivity, national ingroup positivity or prejudice against foreigners. In addition, two demographic variables (white/Anglo Americans and lower socio-economic status) had a direct effect on consumer ethnocentrism, whereas three other variables (gender, education and age) did not.
This study is first to explore how the dimensions of ethnocentrism relate to consumer ethnocentrism. Although consumer ethnocentrism has often been linked to ethnocentrism, the relationship has never been explicitly studied. Ethnocentrism, defined as ethnic group self-centeredness and self-importance, in which the main role is to ensure ethnic group strength and survival, plays a substantial but mainly indirect role via nationalism in consumer ethnocentrism. This study shows that both direct and indirect processes concerned with ethnic groups play a substantial role in the development of consumer ethnocentrism. Implications of the findings for consumer ethnocentrism and global consumer culture are discussed.
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