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Comparing dimensions of national culture for secondary analysis of consumer behavior data of different countries

Marieke de Mooij (Cross Cultural Communications, Burgh-Haamstede, The Netherlands)

International Marketing Review

ISSN: 0265-1335

Article publication date: 8 May 2017




The purpose of this paper is to find consumption-related similarities and differences between the three major dimensional models of national culture, to help researchers select specific models or dimensions for their cross-cultural studies.


First, a review of the theoretical background of cultural values and three models of national culture is provided: those by Hofstede, Schwartz and GLOBE. Then these models are compared through partial correlation analysis, controlling for GNP/capita of a set of 25 relevant consumer behavior-related data with country scores of 21 dimensions of the three dimensional models.


Of all models several dimensions explain differences in consumer behavior. Some dimensions explain values related to specific consumer behavior domains better than others. Only a few dimensions of different models do not show meaningful interesting relationships with consumer behavior issues. Dimensions with the same label do not explain similar differences.

Practical implications

Cross-cultural researchers can choose from the several cultural models, but selecting a model only based on descriptions of the contents of dimensions is difficult. The relationships of dimensions with concrete consumer behavior data found in this study facilitate choice. This analysis may help researchers who consider conducting cross-cultural analysis of consumer behavior data to select a specific model, or specific dimensions of different models that apply best to their research question.


This is the first study that compares the three major dimensional models with examples of consumer behavior-related items.



de Mooij, M. (2017), "Comparing dimensions of national culture for secondary analysis of consumer behavior data of different countries", International Marketing Review, Vol. 34 No. 3, pp. 444-456.



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