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Beyond reach: an extended model of global brand effects

Timo Mandler (Department of Marketing and International Business, Toulouse Business School, Toulouse, France)

International Marketing Review

ISSN: 0265-1335

Article publication date: 10 January 2019

Issue publication date: 15 August 2019




Despite considerable investigations of the various outcomes of perceived brand globalness (PBG), the concept itself remains ambiguous, demanding further conceptual refinement. The purpose of this paper is to contribute to global branding literature by suggesting an extended conceptualization of PBG, and empirically testing a corresponding extended model of global brand effects, relative to the conventional operationalization.


An empirical study (n=907) involving 63 brands across eight different product categories provides new insights into the composition of global brand effects by explicitly discriminating between different facets of consumers’ brand globalness perceptions (i.e. perceived market reach (PMR), perceived standardization (PST) and global consumer culture positioning (GCCP)).


The results clearly show that effects associated with global brands are not exclusively positive. While PMR and GCCP have positive effects on consumers’ brand evaluations and attitudes, PST has a strong negative effect on the same outcomes. These effects apply to both domestic and foreign global brands and occur irrespective of the perceived level of risk associated with a given product category.


The results provide managers a clearer picture of the up- and downsides of brand globalness perceptions and urge future studies on global brands to incorporate constructs that account for facets beyond a brand’s market reach to capture the phenomenon holistically.



The author would like to thanks Ayşegül Özsomer, Adamantios Diamantopoulos, Fabian Bartsch, Vasileios Davvetas and the anonymous reviewers for their valuable feedback on previous versions of this paper. Also, the author thanks MW Research, Niklas Aichinger and Laura Fischer for their support in data collection.


Mandler, T. (2019), "Beyond reach: an extended model of global brand effects", International Marketing Review, Vol. 36 No. 5, pp. 647-674.



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