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The role of interoperability and inter-side benefits on merchants' e-wallet adoption: the case of Peruvian nanostores

Christian Fernando Libaque-Saenz (Department of Engineering, Research Affiliate at the Center for China and Asia Pacific Studies, Universidad del Pacifico, Lima, Peru)
Claudio Ortega (Department of Engineering, Universidad del Pacifico, Lima, Peru)
Michelle Rodriguez-Serra (Department of Engineering, Universidad del Pacifico, Lima, Peru)
Mario Chong (Department of Engineering, Universidad del Pacifico, Lima, Peru)
Salvador Lopez-Puente-de-la-Vega (Department of Business Management, Universidad del Pacifico, Lima, Peru)

Industrial Management & Data Systems

ISSN: 0263-5577

Article publication date: 12 October 2023

Issue publication date: 2 January 2024




Although e-wallet adoption has grown in recent years, there are some countries like Peru with low penetration rates. Contrary to prior studies that focused on customers' adoption of e-wallets, this study focuses on merchants' adoption to fully understand the use of these services. Additionally, considering that e-wallets are two-sided markets with the co-existence of two distinct economic agents (customer and merchants) interacting through these platforms, this study is the first to assess the dynamics of inter-side benefits from the merchants' perspective. Finally, interoperability was also included to determine its role in countries where the interaction between different e-wallets is limited.


Based on two-sided markets and social cognitive theory, a model was proposed including merchants' perceived benefits associated with the use of e-wallets, for them and for their customers (inter-side). Additionally, technical issues such as interoperability were measured. Data were collected from nanostore owners in Lima in 2022. A structural equation modeling technique was used to determine the impact of both types of benefits and technical features on merchants' adoption of e-wallets. Finally, a polynomial regression with response surface methodology was used to assess the interaction of the benefits for both sides of the platform from the merchants' perspective.


The two-sided-market features of e-wallets were validated. From merchants' view, the use of these platforms is the result of balancing the benefits for them and for their customers, and the interaction between these two types of benefits varies according to the socio-economic level in which the nanostore operates. Additionally, interoperability was found to be important for merchants, so future policies should commit to achieve an ecosystem that facilitates the interoperability not only among e-wallets but also between e-wallets and third-party services. Finally, since service availability is also important for merchants, e-wallet providers should invest in improving their infrastructure's scalability.


Prior studies have mainly focused on the customer side of e-wallets, with little research about the adoption of digital payment methods by the merchant side. In addition, no study has focused on the effect of one of the sides of the platform on the other side (inter-side benefits) when adopting these services. Finally, the effect of interoperability across platforms has not been addressed in detail yet. This study aims to fill these gaps by proposing a framework to understand the adoption of these services by merchants in terms of inter-side benefits and technical issues.



Libaque-Saenz, C.F., Ortega, C., Rodriguez-Serra, M., Chong, M. and Lopez-Puente-de-la-Vega, S. (2024), "The role of interoperability and inter-side benefits on merchants' e-wallet adoption: the case of Peruvian nanostores", Industrial Management & Data Systems, Vol. 124 No. 1, pp. 64-84.



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