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Tribological performance evaluation on brake friction material by using multi-objective optimization methods

Hasan Öktem (Division of Machine and Metal Technologies, Hereke Asım Vocational School, Kocaeli University, Kocaeli, Turkey)
Dinesh Shinde (Gujarat Technological University, Ahmedabad, India)

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology

ISSN: 0036-8792

Article publication date: 7 May 2021

Issue publication date: 2 June 2021




The purpose of this study is to present a novel approach for the evaluation of tribological properties of brake friction materials (BFM).


In this study, a BFM was newly formulated with 16 different ingredients and produced using an industrial hot compression molding process. Experimentation was carried out on the brake tester, which was developed for this purpose according to SAE J661 standards. The braking applications, sliding speed and braking pressure were considered as performance parameters, whereas coefficient of friction (CoF) and wear rate as output parameters. The influence of the performance parameters on the output was studied using response surface plots. Analysis of variance and regression analysis was accomplished for post-experimental evaluation of results. Multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) and multi-objective genetic algorithm (MOGA) were applied for estimating the most critical performance parameter combination to evaluate the BFM.


The present experimental model was significant and effectively used to predict the performance. MCDM generates the optimal values for the parameters braking applications, braking pressure (Bar) and sliding speed (rpm) as 1000, 30 and 915, whereas MOGA as 1008, 10.503 and 462.8202, respectively.


An efficient model for performance evaluation of the BFM considering maximum CoF and minimum wear rate was experimentally presented and statistically verified. Also, the two multi-objective optimization methodologies were implemented and compared. A comparison between the results of MCDM and MOGA reveals that MOGA yields 30% better results than MCDM.



The authors express their thanks to Hamdi Karakaş at Form Metal Corporation and Kocaeli University.


Öktem, H. and Shinde, D. (2021), "Tribological performance evaluation on brake friction material by using multi-objective optimization methods", Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, Vol. 73 No. 4, pp. 599-605.



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