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Tribology study of hydroxyapatite (HAp) scaffold blended single based binder via rheology and mechanical properties

Mimi Azlina Abu Bakar (Centre for Advanced Materials Research (CAMAR), Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Shah Alam, Malaysia)
Siti Norazlini Abd Aziz (Centre for Advanced Materials Research (CAMAR), Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Shah Alam, Malaysia)
Muhammad Hussain Ismail (Centre for Advanced Materials Research (CAMAR), Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Shah Alam, Malaysia)

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology

ISSN: 0036-8792

Article publication date: 8 May 2017

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate the vital characteristic of an innovative ceramic injection molding (CIM) process for orthopedic application with controlled porosity and improved tribological and mechanical properties which were affected by complex tribological interactions, whether lubricated like hip implants and other artificial prostheses. The main objective is to maximize the usage of palm stearin as a single based binder as the function of flow properties during injection molding process.

Design/methodology/approach

The binder used in this present study consists of 100 per cent palm stearin manufactured by Kempas Oil Sdn Bhd and supplied by Vistec Technology Sdn Bhd. The feedstock was prepared by using a Z-blade mixer (Thermo Haake Rheomix OS) and Brabender mixer model R2400. The feedstock prepared was injection molded using a manually operated vertical benchtop machine with an average pressure of about 5-7 bars. The firing step included the temporary holds at intermediate temperatures to burn out organic binders. At this stage, the green molded specimen was de-bound using a single-step wick-debinding method.

Findings

The maximum content of ceramic material is applied to investigate the efficiencies of net formulation that can be achieved by ceramic materials. The longer the viscosity will change with shear rate, the higher the value of n obtained instead. From the slope of the curves obtained in Figure 3, the value of n for the feedstock was determined to be less than 1, which indicates a pseudoplastic behavior and suitability for the molding process. Moreover, high shear sensitivity is important in producing complex and intrinsic specimens which are leading products in the CIM industry.

Originality/value

The feedstock containing HAp powder and palm stearin binder was successfully prepared at very low temperature of 70°C, which promoting a required pseudo-plastic behavior during rheological test. The single binder palm stearin should be optimized in other research works carried out, as palm stearin is most preferred compared to other polymeric materials that provided high energy consumption when subjected to the sintering process. Besides the binder is widely available in Malaysia, low cost and harmless effect during debinding process.

Keywords

Acknowledgements

The authors would like to thank and express appreciation to Exploratory Research Grant Scheme (ERGS, 600-RMI/ERGS 5/3 (25/2013) Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), Malaysia, for the financial support to complete this research.

Citation

Abu Bakar, M.A., Abd Aziz, S.N. and Ismail, M.H. (2017), "Tribology study of hydroxyapatite (HAp) scaffold blended single based binder via rheology and mechanical properties", Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, Vol. 69 No. 3, pp. 414-419. https://doi.org/10.1108/ILT-09-2016-0228

Publisher

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Emerald Publishing Limited

Copyright © 2017, Emerald Publishing Limited