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Influence of steadite on the tribological behavior of cylinder liners

Tiago Cousseau (Department of Mechanical Engineering, Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana, Curitiba, Brazil)
Edison Serbino (Industria de Veículos Automotores Ltda, Volkswagen do Brasil, Sao Bernardo do Campo, Brazil)
Edney Rejowski (Mahle Metal Leve SA, Mogi Guacu, Brazil)
Amilton Sinatora (Mechanical Engineering Department, Universidade de Sao Paulo Escola Politecnica, Sao Paulo, Brazil and Instituto Tecnológico Vale, Ouro Preto, Brazil)

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology

ISSN: 0036-8792

Article publication date: 4 December 2018

Issue publication date: 5 March 2019



This paper aims to understand the effect of steadite in gray cast iron (GCI) cylinder liners performance (friction and wear) when lubricated with new lube oil formulations to verify if steadite can be reduced or suppressed from cylinder liners composition.


The paper presents an experimental approach to quantify the separated effect of lube additives and steadite content on GCI performance. Friction and wear of GCI samples with and without steadite were analyzed under lubricated conditions with a 5W30 lubricant and a base oil of similar viscosity under operating conditions similar to the ones observed at the top dead center of Otto engines. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM)-EDS analysis was used to evaluate wear and tribofilm formation.


The paper shows that steadite stabilizes friction coefficient and slightly reduces wear in the tests performed with base oil. However, its advantages are marginal in comparison to the ones provided by the fully formulated oil. Furthermore, SEM-EDS analyses of the wear track showed that steadite does not chemically react with zinc and sulfur compounds, reducing the tribofilm formation on the real area of contact and consequently changing the tribosystem behavior.


This paper covers an identified need to study the effect of lube additives and GCI composition using actual piston ring and cylinder liners under operating conditions similar to the ones observed at the top dead center of Otto engines.



The authors deeply acknowledge the financial support given by FAPESP via the R&D Consortium “Tribological challenges in flex-fuel engines, ref. 2009/54891-8”.


Cousseau, T., Serbino, E., Rejowski, E. and Sinatora, A. (2019), "Influence of steadite on the tribological behavior of cylinder liners", Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, Vol. 71 No. 2, pp. 324-332.



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