The National commodity exchanges were established in India in the year 2003-2004 to perform the functions of price discovery and price risk management in the economy. The derivatives market can perform these functions properly only if they are efficient and unbiased. So, there is a need to properly evaluate these aspects of the Indian commodity derivatives market. The purpose of this paper is to test the market efficiency and unbiasedness of the Indian soybean futures markets.
The paper uses cointegration and a QARCH-M-ECM-based framework to test the market efficiency and unbiasedness in the soybean futures contract traded in the National Commodity Derivatives Exchange (NCDEX). The cointegration test is used to test the long-run unbiasedness and market efficiency of the contract, while the QARCH-M-ECM model is used to test the short-run market efficiency and unbiasedness of the contract by allowing for a time-varying risk premium. The price data is also tested for presence of structural breaks using a Zivot and Andrews unit root test.
The soybean contract is unbiased in the long run, but there are short-run market inefficiencies and also a presence of a time-varying risk premium. Though the weak form of market efficiency is rejected in the short run, the semi-strong market efficiency is not rejected based on the forecasts.
This is the first paper to consider time-varying risk premium while performing the tests of market efficiency and unbiasedness on Indian commodity markets.
Ranganathan, T. and Ananthakumar, U. (2014), "Market efficiency in Indian soybean futures markets", International Journal of Emerging Markets, Vol. 9 No. 4, pp. 520-534. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJoEM-12-2011-0106Download as .RIS
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