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Restrictions’ acceptance and risk perception by young generations in a COVID-19 context

Claudia Seabra (Faculty of Arts and Humanities, University of Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal and Centre of Studies on Geography and Spatial Planning (CEGOT), Coimbra, Portugal)
Miral AlAshry (Faculty of Economics and Political Science, Future University in Egypt (FUE), New Cairo, Egypt)
Kevser Çınar (Faculty of Tourism, Department of Tourism Management, Necmettin Erbakan University, Konya, Turkey)
Irfan Raja (Daily Sabah and Asia Times, Istanbul, Turkey)
Manuel Reis (School of Technology and Management, Polytechnic Institute of Viseu, Viseu, Portugal; Centre for the Study of Education, Technologies and Health (CI&DETS), Viseu, Portugal, and Research Center in Digital Services (CISeD), Viseu, Portugal)
Najma Sadiq (School of Social Sciences and Humanities (S3H), National University of Sciences and Technology (NUST), Islamabad, Pakistan)

International Journal of Tourism Cities

ISSN: 2056-5607

Article publication date: 10 June 2021

Issue publication date: 6 July 2021




The purpose of this study is to analyze the impact of the acceptance of national governments’ restrictions imposed due to the COVID-19 pandemic on the citizens’ safety perceptions of daily life and future plans. In particular, the aim is to examine the relationship among the citizens who belong to Generations Y and Z and who represent the future of tourism markets, as tourists and as host communities, in three important receiving countries, namely, Egypt, Portugal and Turkey.


This pilot project gathers data from three important receiving countries located on two continents involving 348 residents from Generations Y and Z. To identify the factors underlying the “acceptance of restrictions and measures” and the “Impacts of the COVID-19 threat on safety perceptions” a factor analysis was carried out. Notably, Pearson's correlation coefficient and a multiple linear regression analysis allowed to analyze the relationships between the two factors and a Kruskal–Wallis test was used to assess the influence of individuals’ country of residence.


The results reveal that in general, young generations accepted the measures and restrictions imposed by the respective governments. In addition, the present pandemic has a strong impact on their safety perception in daily lives and future plans to travel. Moreover, results prove that between the three countries there are dissimilarities showing that the countries' situation regarding COVID-19 influences those two dimensions.

Research limitations/implications

This study adds to the development of studies on the impacts of health risks in tourism activity, specifically on the safety measures adopted and their impacts on local receiving communities. It shows that the current pandemic is severely affecting the daily lives and plans for the future of citizens and tourists, which is in accordance with previous studies.

Practical implications

The outcome of this study paves the way for policy-makers in the tourism industry because it presents experiences from Generations Y and Z members, future customers and tourist products consumers, but also from receiving communities.

Social implications

The results of this study bring some light on how local communities, specifically, the younger generations, are facing this pandemic period and on the impact it has on the way they face daily life, future plans and on their level of acceptance of a sector as important as tourism.


To the knowledge, besides the relevant studies already conducted on the impact of the COVID-19 crisis on the tourism field, no study has yet been carried out to analyze how residents have reacted and accepted the restrictions and security measures imposed by their national governments and their impact on residents’ feelings and perceptions, daily lives and travel plans. Furthermore, the specific impacts of this crisis will have on the younger generations are yet to be analyzed.



Seabra, C., AlAshry, M., Çınar, K., Raja, I., Reis, M. and Sadiq, N. (2021), "Restrictions’ acceptance and risk perception by young generations in a COVID-19 context", International Journal of Tourism Cities, Vol. 7 No. 2, pp. 463-491.



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Copyright © 2020, International Tourism Studies Association.

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