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Congestion, popular world heritage tourist attractions and tourism stakeholder responses in Macao

Hilary Du Cros (Faculty of Business, University of New Brunswick, Saint John, Canada)
Weng Hang Kong (School of Tourism Management, Macao Institute for Tourism Studies, Macao, China)

International Journal of Tourism Cities

ISSN: 2056-5607

Article publication date: 27 February 2020

Issue publication date: 28 November 2020



The purpose of this study is to offer advice to the Macao Special Administrative Region (SAR) Government regarding the tourist and traffic flow concerning how these contribute to congestion in World Heritage Site (WHS) elements and make recommendations regarding the management of tourist flows and traffic congestion.


The research undertaken in this study is partially longitudinal. The case study is also partially ethnographic in that tourist behaviour at key sites has been observed. Concerning the specific methodology applied, data collection techniques are chosen to provide a multiplicity of data sources: on-site observation and semi-structured telephone interviews.


The study is found that Macao was at a crossroad. All stakeholders needed to take some responsibility for implementing actions recommended that would ensure that Macao SAR’s World Heritage assets would be used responsibly for future, as well as for present generations.


The study has shown that better and long-term understanding of congestion is necessary to inform better visitor management decision-making, enhance tourist experience and discover the factors that influence visitor satisfaction. It is also needed to reveal aspects of stakeholder readiness and barriers to action.



Du Cros, H. and Kong, W.H. (2020), "Congestion, popular world heritage tourist attractions and tourism stakeholder responses in Macao", International Journal of Tourism Cities, Vol. 6 No. 4, pp. 929-951.



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