This paper discusses the role of Zakat Funds in the provision of social protection in the Middle East and North Africa region, based on the examples of Jordan and Sudan. The purpose of this paper is to assess different modalities of Zakat in two countries where it is regulated in some form by the state.
Findings are based on a desk review of academic, peer-reviewed literature as well as reports published by international organisations and information provided online by governments and national Zakat Funds. The choice of these countries was further motivated by the availability of literature in English and Arabic.
The extent to which Zakat can be used to finance social protection measures varies not only in the way it is collected and administered, but also with the country’s geographic and political conditions. In Sudan, Zakat is mandatory and reaches proportionally more households than in Jordan. While the Quran establishes the eight categories for those who should receive Zakat, the selection in both countries is at the discretion of the Funds’ administrators.
The topic of Zakat is one that has received increased attention by researchers interested in Muslim values, social policy and public finance. However, little research has been produced on the intersections of these three topics.
This paper is based on a working paper published by the International Policy Centre for Inclusive Growth. (Machado et al., 2018a). The case studies of Jordan and Sudan were updated according to recent official resources.
Bilo, C. and Machado, A. (2019), "The role of
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