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E-rickshaws on urban streets: sustainability issues and policies

Eijaz Ahmed Khan (School of Business, Melbourne Institute of Technology, Sydney, Australia)
Mohammed Quaddus (School of Marketing, Curtin University, Perth, Australia)

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy

ISSN: 0144-333X

Article publication date: 27 October 2020

Issue publication date: 23 June 2021




In urban streets of developing countries, informal e-rickshaw operation can contribute to the development of economically viable, citizen-oriented and environmentally friendly transport systems. Even though informal e-rickshaw operation is important, significant gaps are apparent in the literature in relation to e-rickshaw sustainability issues and policies, and the development of a methodology grounded in a robust theoretical base. The current paper aims to address these gaps by integrating stakeholder theory (ST) and resource dependency theory (RDT) as we consider the linkage between e-rickshaw operation and the sustainability concept.


We apply fuzzy quality function deployment (QFD), integrated with the 0–1 non-linear optimisation technique, to identify optimal policies for the e-rickshaw informal sector on Khulna city's urban streets in Bangladesh.


The results suggest that optimal policies should be formalised to regularise e-rickshaw operation. Appropriate supervision and monitoring; infrastructural support for battery charging, parking, battery recycling and solar panel installation; and training and development should all be provided.

Research limitations/implications

The theoretical and managerial implications of our results are discussed, with future research suggestions presented.


To the best of our knowledge, no previous study has used ST and RDT in e-rickshaw sector research. We recognised that the stakeholder settings for sustainability policies can well influence the behaviour of informal e-rickshaw operators while allotting the necessary resources to this sector. This move assists researchers and policymakers to understand the stakeholders and resource dependency sustainability requirements of this sector and the implementation of the required policies.



The authors thank all surveyors for their efforts throughout the data collection process. The authors also thank all of the participants who contributed to the study. The authors also thank all reviewers for their valuable comments during the paper review process.Funding: The authors have not received any financial support for the research, authorship, and/ or publication of this research.


Khan, E.A. and Quaddus, M. (2021), "E-rickshaws on urban streets: sustainability issues and policies", International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, Vol. 41 No. 7/8, pp. 930-948.



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