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How best to measure connection to a team: team identification, brand attitude/loyalty, consumer lifestyle or interest level?

Galen Trail (Department of Marketing, Seattle University, Seattle, Washington, USA)
Hyejin Bang (Department of Counselling, Recreation, and School Psychology, Florida International University, Miami, FL, USA)
Windy Dees (Department of Kinesiology and Sport Sciences, University of Miami, Coral Gables, Florida, USA)

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship

ISSN: 1464-6668

Article publication date: 5 December 2023

Issue publication date: 19 March 2024

240

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study was to compare four different consumer pathway models based on identity theory, attitude/loyalty theory, lifestyle theory and hierarchy of effects theory, each with associated instruments measuring connection to the team.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors did a two-study analysis, first collecting data from people aware of an NFL team (N = 218) and then an MLS team (N = 209) to determine which connection item performed better.

Findings

The authors found that the Consumer Pathway for Sport Fandom based on the hierarchy of effects theory and its associated interest measurement item performed better than the other three frameworks and items. The Interest item shared the most variance with games attended, games intending to attend, games watched via media and games intending to watch via media.

Originality/value

The Consumer Pathway for Sport Fandom represents the entire consumer spectrum from non-aware consumers all the way up to die-hard sports fans. This pathway will allow sport marketers to track their consumers from initial awareness of the product or service all the way through the brand relationship to ultimate loyalty.

Keywords

Citation

Trail, G., Bang, H. and Dees, W. (2024), "How best to measure connection to a team: team identification, brand attitude/loyalty, consumer lifestyle or interest level?", International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, Vol. 25 No. 2, pp. 227-247. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJSMS-06-2023-0118

Publisher

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Emerald Publishing Limited

Copyright © 2023, Emerald Publishing Limited

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