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Gender gap in rice productivity: evidence from Vietnam

Thi Kieu Van Tran (China Agricultural University, Beijing, China)
Ehsan Elahi (Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing, China)
Liqin Zhang (China Agricultural University, Beijing, China)
Van Huyen Bui (Ho Chi Minh National Academy of Politics, Hanoi, Vietnam)
Quang Trung Pham (Central Institute for Economic Management, Hanoi, Vietnam)
Thuy Duong Tran (Hanoi University, Hanoi, Vietnam)
Thi Lien Ta (Beijing Forestry University, Beijing, China)
Munawar Hassan (China Agricultural University, Beijing, China)

International Journal of Social Economics

ISSN: 0306-8293

Article publication date: 17 September 2018

Issue publication date: 16 January 2019



The purpose of this paper is to investigate the determinants of the gender gap in the gross value of rice yield in Vietnam.


A panel data set of 12 provinces of Vietnam from 2010 to 2014 was used, collected from the Vietnam access to resources household survey. To measure the gender gap in the gross value of rice yield, two-stage least squares and Blinder – Oaxaca decomposition methods were used.


The gross value of rice productivity of male-headed households was 10.3 percent higher than that of female-headed households. The gender gap in rice productivity is caused by the endowment and structural effects; the endowment effect explained 53 percent of the gender gap in rice productivity and the structural effect 42 percent.

Practical implications

In order to reduce the gender gap and improve the gross value of rice yield, the following policies are suggested: female education and access to institutional services (extension and credit) should be improved and future research is needed to determine the reasons for gender discrimination in the agricultural production system.


The findings suggest that the difference in the gross value of rice yield between male- and female-headed households were mainly caused by endowments and returns from those endowments.



This work is a part PhD study and it was financially supported by Chinese Scholarship Council (CSC) and the startup foundation for introducing talent of Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology (NUIST), Peoples’ Republic of China (Grant No. 2017r101). The authors of this paper have not made their research data set openly available. Any enquiries regarding the data set can be directed to the corresponding author.


Van Tran, T.K., Elahi, E., Zhang, L., Bui, V.H., Pham, Q.T., Tran, T.D., Ta, T.L. and Hassan, M. (2019), "Gender gap in rice productivity: evidence from Vietnam", International Journal of Social Economics, Vol. 46 No. 2, pp. 241-251.



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