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Factors associated with early literacy and numeracy development among children under five years in Bangladesh: multivariate two-level mixed effect approach

Md. Ismail Hossain (Department of Statistics, Jagannath University, Dhaka, Bangladesh)
Iqramul Haq (Department of Agricultural Statistics, Sher-e-Bangla Agricultural University, Dhaka, Bangladesh)
Md. Sanwar Hossain (Department of Statistics, Jagannath University, Dhaka, Bangladesh)
Md. Jakaria Habib (Department of Statistics, Jagannath University, Dhaka, Bangladesh)
Fiza Binta Islam (Department of Statistics, Jagannath University, Dhaka, Bangladesh)
Sutopa Roy (Department of Statistics, Jagannath University, Dhaka, Bangladesh)
Mofasser Rahman (Department of Agribusiness and Marketing, Sher-e-Bangla Agricultural University, Dhaka, Bangladesh)

International Journal of Social Economics

ISSN: 0306-8293

Article publication date: 28 October 2022

Issue publication date: 27 February 2023

332

Abstract

Purpose

Early literacy and numeracy development among children may be the best measure of a child's well-being. The purpose of this research was to examine the impact of child factors, quality of care and household factors, and community factors in early childhood on the development of literacy and numeracy skills of children in Bangladesh.

Design/methodology/approach

For this study, the authors used data from Bangladesh's 2019 Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey. The association between response variables and selected covariates was examined using the chi-square test. To determine the risk factors for early child literacy and numeracy development, the authors applied two-level logistic regression models.

Findings

Among the total of under five children (n = 9,449), in general, 29.1% of the children were growing in the development early childhood literacy and numeracy in Bangladesh. Children (36–47 months), male children, children with moderate stunting, children with severe and moderate underweight status, mothers without education and primary education, and mothers from the poorest, poorer, middle and richer households were less likely than their counterparts to develop children's early literacy and numeracy skills. In contrast, women from the eastern and central regions, children who read at least 3 books, and early childhood education had higher odds of children's literacy and numeracy skills development than their counterparts.

Originality/value

The results from this study suggest that children's, community, quality of care and household level significant factors should be considered when trying to improve children's literacy and numeracy skills development in Bangladesh.

Keywords

Acknowledgements

The authors specially thank the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) for providing the 2019 Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey data from Bangladesh.

Funding: This research did not receive any funds.

Citation

Hossain, M.I., Haq, I., Hossain, M.S., Habib, M.J., Islam, F.B., Roy, S. and Rahman, M. (2023), "Factors associated with early literacy and numeracy development among children under five years in Bangladesh: multivariate two-level mixed effect approach", International Journal of Social Economics, Vol. 50 No. 3, pp. 345-358. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJSE-10-2021-0595

Publisher

:

Emerald Publishing Limited

Copyright © 2022, Emerald Publishing Limited

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