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Social, local and mobile commerce practices in omni-channel retailing: Insights from Germany and Turkey

Işık Özge Yumurtacı Hüseyinoğlu (Department of Logistics Management, Izmir Ekonomi Universitesi, Izmir, Turkey)
Erdem Galipoğlu (Industrial Services Research Group, University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany)
Herbert Kotzab (University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany)

International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management

ISSN: 0959-0552

Article publication date: 10 July 2017




The purpose of this paper is to evaluate how retailing companies use social media, local and mobile commerce in their omni-channel management strategy. This approach, also known as SO-LO-MO, encompasses customer touchpoints that offer numerous available channels to consumers. The paper provides insights from 16 retailers in two countries, thus showing geographical differences in the SO-LO-MO as well as differences depending on product segments.


In order to analyse how retailing companies implement SO-LO-MO, a conceptual framework including 48 SO-LO-MO activities was derived from literature. The empirical validation was built upon qualitative and quantitative data collection by retrieving information from the websites, social media channels and mobile applications (apps). Analyses included triangulated content analysis as well as non-parametric statistical tests.


The research findings enable a comparison of the SO-LO-MO concept between retailers operating in the two countries. The authors were able to reveal similarities and differences in the SO-LO-MO-based omni-channel management strategies. The identified SO-LO-MO practices vary according to different product segments. The authors identified slightly more SO-LO-MO implementation and integration within the German sample. Differences in local commerce between the two samples appear to be statistically significant. Although the differences in mobile and social commerce are not of statistical significance, there are variations in practical usage.

Research limitations/implications

The research focusses on a small sample of retailers from different product segments in two markets.

Practical implications

The findings present the current state of the SO-LO-MO concept from the omni-channel perspective in Germany and Turkey.


In view of a limited theoretical understanding and empirical grounding on the SO-LO-MO concept, the findings provide empirical evidence by assessing innovative omni-channel management practices of leading retailers in various industry segments. Furthermore, the paper proposes a frame of reference for measuring the level of SO-LO-MO implementation from an omni-channel perspective.



Yumurtacı Hüseyinoğlu, I.Ö., Galipoğlu, E. and Kotzab, H. (2017), "Social, local and mobile commerce practices in omni-channel retailing: Insights from Germany and Turkey", International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, Vol. 45 No. 7/8, pp. 711-729.



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