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Modeling Deming’s quality principles to improve performance using interpretive structural modeling and MICMAC analysis

Nishant Mukesh Agrawal (Institute of Management, Nirma University, Ahmedabad, India)

International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management

ISSN: 0265-671X

Article publication date: 5 August 2019




The purpose of this paper is to study the 14 principles of Edwards Deming and create significant relationships between them. No research has been reported on the implementation of Total Quality Management (TQM) using Deming’s 14 principles. To fill this gap, Interpretive Structural Modeling (ISM) and MICMAC analysis have been developed to understand mutual interactions among variables and find both the dependence and driving power of these variables.


The research paper discusses a blend of practical applications and introduces a theoretical framework. An ISM-based methodology is used to study and examine interactions between identified variables, while MICMAC analysis is used to identify the dependence and driving power.


This research utilizes Deming’s 14 quality principles, with experts from academia and industry consulted to identify contextual relationships among variables. The result shows that the stated principles “take action to accomplish the transformation,” “institute training,” “encourage education to employees” and “institute leadership” are strategic requirements, while “drive out fear,” “break down barrier between staff areas” and “eliminate numerical quotas” are tactical requirements. “Adopt the new philosophy,” “create constancy in improvement of product and service” and “cease dependence on mass inspections” are operational requirements for TQM applications.


An ISM-based quality framework, dependence power and driving power of variables using MICMAC analysis have been recommended to the service and manufacturing industry as a new focus area in the implementation of TQM.



The author sincerely thanks Dr Sachin Modgil, Dr Rohit Singh and Dr Surendra Kansara for continuous support in understanding of ISM and anonymous referees whose constructive comments led to a substantial improvement of the paper.


Agrawal, N.M. (2019), "Modeling Deming’s quality principles to improve performance using interpretive structural modeling and MICMAC analysis", International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management, Vol. 36 No. 7, pp. 1159-1180.



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