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Developing a 3D decision-making grid based on failure modes and effects analysis with a case study in the steel industry

Arash Shahin (Department of Management, University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran)
Ashraf Labib (University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth, UK)
Ali Haj Shirmohammadi (Department of Industrial Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan, Iran)
Hadi Balouei Jamkhaneh (Department of Industrial Management, Persian Gulf University, Bushehr, Iran)

International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management

ISSN: 0265-671X

Article publication date: 18 July 2020

Issue publication date: 3 February 2021



The aim of this study is to develop a 3D model of decision- making grid (DMG) considering failure detection rate.


In a comparison between DMG and failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA), severity has been assumed as time to repair and occurrence as the frequency of failure. Detection rate has been added as the third dimension of DMG. Nine months data of 21 equipment of casting unit of Mobarakeh Steel Company (MSC) has been analyzed. Then, appropriate condition monitoring (CM) techniques and maintenance tactics have been suggested. While in 2D DMG, CM is used when downtime is high and frequency is low; its application has been developed for other maintenance tactics in a 3D DMG.


Findings indicate that the results obtained from the developed DMG are different from conventional grid results, and it is more capable in suggesting maintenance tactics according to the operating conditions of equipment.

Research limitations/implications

In failure detection, the influence of CM techniques is different. In this paper, CM techniques have been suggested based on their maximum influence on failure detection.


In conventional DMG, failure detection rate is not included. The developed 3D DMG provides this advantage by considering a new axis of detection rate in addition to mean time to repair (MTTR) and failure frequency, and it enhances maintenance decision-making by simultaneous selection of suitable maintenance tactics and condition-monitoring techniques.



The authors appreciate the support of MSC in its careful and valuable contribution to the evaluation of the proposed framework. Special acknowledgments to Mr. Farhad Anvari, director of the research and development center; Mr. Rasoul Shafeizadeh, director of the maintenance department and Mr. Rezaei, an expert from the casting department.


Shahin, A., Labib, A., Haj Shirmohammadi, A. and Balouei Jamkhaneh, H. (2021), "Developing a 3D decision-making grid based on failure modes and effects analysis with a case study in the steel industry", International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management, Vol. 38 No. 2, pp. 628-645.



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