This paper aims to examine how direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) in terms of endorser selection and message tonality affect patients' self-efficacy, response efficacy, and compliance.
This study employed a 3 (Endorser: physician, patient, or celebrity)×2 (Tonality: supportive vs threatening) experimental design. Subjects were 1,211 people with diabetes from Germany.
First, the study shows that the interaction between message sender and tonality significantly affects all dependent variables such as self-efficacy, response efficacy, and patient compliance. Second, physicians as endorsers work best when they use unfavorable, threatening arguments. The results are significant for all dependent variables such as self-efficacy, response efficacy, and patient compliance. Most surprisingly, patients judge attitude significantly higher if physicians use threatening instead of supportive argumentation. Third, tonality does not play a dominant role for patients as person-based testimonials. Fourth, a celebrity performs best by using a supportive message. With regard to stimulating health outcome (self-efficacy, response efficacy, and patient compliance) the celebrity has a significant impact in the supportive rather than in the threatening condition.
This is the first empirical study that examines the effects of DTCA in terms of endorser selection and message tonality on patients' self-efficacy, response efficacy, and compliance.
The authors thank Roche Diagnostics Germany for their support with regard to data collection. They also thank survey respondents as well as the anonymous IJPHM review team for their valuable suggestions.This article is based on the doctoral dissertation of the first author.
N. Bergner, K., Falk, T., Heinrich, D. and A. Hölzing, J. (2013), "The effects of DTCA on patient compliance: Exploring the impact of endorser selection and message tonality on patients with diabetes", International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Healthcare Marketing, Vol. 7 No. 4, pp. 391-409. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJPHM-05-2013-0031Download as .RIS
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