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Pro-environmental behavior in nutricosmetics product purchase context: Scale development and validation

Farzana Quoquab (Azman Hashim International Business School, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia)
Jihad Mohammad (Department of Management and Marketing, College of Business and Economics, Qatar University, Doha, Qatar)
Ruzanna Shahrin (Azman Hashim International Business School, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia)

International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Healthcare Marketing

ISSN: 1750-6123

Article publication date: 13 March 2020

Issue publication date: 21 May 2020

Abstract

Purpose

Though the concern over pro-environmental behavior is growing, there is a lack of a valid scale to measure pro-environmental behavior in nutricosmetics context. Nutricosmetics products are believed to boost health and fitness and thus gained worldwide popularity. Many consumers in recent days are purchasing nutricosmetics products because of its positive impact toward human health and less harm toward the environment. However, to date, there is no valid instrument to measure this construct. To fill this gap in the existing literature, this study aims to develop a valid and reliable scale to measure pro-environmental behavior in nutricosmetics purchase (PEB-NP).

Design/methodology/approach

To develop and validate the PEB-NP scale, a sequential process is followed which includes item generation, item selection, item purification and item validation. Relevant literature was reviewed and qualitative interviews were carried out to generate the items. Next, experts’ opinion was sought to select the items. Two studies were conducted (N = 150, N = 448) to explore the factor structure and to validate the scale. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was used to purify the scale, whereas confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) using SmartPLS (version 3) was used to validate the scale.

Findings

Based on EFA output, 14 items were retained which were then validated using CFA. The results revealed that, PEB-NP is a hierarchical multi-dimensional construct. The dimensions are “environmental aesthetics,” “conservation behavior (reduce and recycle)” and “health consciousness.” The findings from CFA confirmed the EFA results and established that pro-environmental behavior is a third-order factor model in which conservation dimension is consisted of two sub-dimensions, namely, “reduce” and “recycle” behavior.

Practical implications

The newly developed scale will enable the marketers and policymakers to segment their consumers based on this scale to better strategize the marketing efforts in fulfilling their needs. Not only this, the PEB-NP scale will benefit marketers in understanding the behavioral pattern and purchase preference of the pro-environmental consumers with regard to the nutricosmetics consumption. This research also provides suggestions for future researchers in the pro-environmental behavior and nutricosmetics fields.

Originality/value

This study is a pioneer study to develop and validate the PEB scale in the context of nutricosmetics purchase.

Keywords

Citation

Quoquab, F., Mohammad, J. and Shahrin, R. (2020), "Pro-environmental behavior in nutricosmetics product purchase context: Scale development and validation", International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Healthcare Marketing, Vol. 14 No. 2, pp. 217-250. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJPHM-04-2019-0033

Publisher

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Emerald Publishing Limited

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