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Associated factors to depression diagnosed during incarceration in Peruvian male prisoners: a sub-analysis of the national census of prison population

Ali Al-kassab-Córdova (Centro de Excelencia en Estudios Económicos y Sociales en Salud, Universidad San Ignacio de Loyola, Lima, Peru.)
Claudia Silva-Perez (Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad Peruana de Ciencias Aplicadas, Lima, Peru.)
Andres Quevedo-Ramirez (Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad Peruana de Ciencias Aplicadas, Lima, Peru.)
Marco Gonzalo Mendoza Lugo (Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad Peruana de Ciencias Aplicadas, Lima, Peru.)
Jonathan Azcarruz-Asencios (Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad Peruana de Ciencias Aplicadas, Lima, Peru.)
Giancarlo Castañeda-Montenegro (Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad Peruana de Ciencias Aplicadas, Lima, Peru.)
Sergio Bravo-Cucci (Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad Peruana de Ciencias Aplicadas, Lima, Peru.)
Jorge L. Maguina (Escuela de Medicina, Universidad Científica del Sur, Lima, Peru and Dirección de Investigación, Instituto de Evaluación de Tecnologías en Salud e Investigación, Lima, Peru.)

International Journal of Prisoner Health

ISSN: 1744-9200

Article publication date: 29 December 2022

17

Abstract

Purpose

Depression has become a major health concern, particularly in developing countries. This disorder is highly prevalent among certain vulnerable populations, such as prisoners. In Peru, prisons are overcrowded, and the health of prisoners is neglected. Thus, this study aims to estimate the prevalence of depression diagnosed during incarceration in male inmates from all Peruvian prisons and assess its associated factors.

Design/methodology/approach

A cross-sectional study was conducted based on the secondary data analysis of the National Census of Prison Population 2016 in Peru. This study included records of prisoners who reported whether they were diagnosed with depression by a health-care professional after admission into the prisons. Descriptive, bivariate and multivariable analyses were performed.

Findings

Of the 63,312 prisoners included in this study, 1,007 reported an in-prison diagnosis of depression by a health-care professional, which represents a prevalence of 1.59%. Substance use disorder (adjusted prevalence ratio [aPR] 3.10; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.91–5.03), hypertension (aPR 7.20; 95% CI: 6.28–8.24) and previous discrimination (aPR 1.97; 95% CI: 1.62–2.40) were strongly associated with depression, even when adjusting for multiple confounders. Other directly associated variables were, for example, violence during childhood, infrequent visits in prison and diabetes.

Originality/value

The right of prisoners to adequate health care is being neglected in Peru. Mental health is a cornerstone of health quality. Acknowledging which factors are associated with depression in prison is important to implement strategies to improve the mental health of prisoners.

Keywords

Acknowledgements

The authors thank Dr Roger Araujo and Dr German Alvarado for their suggestions on the design of the study.

Citation

Al-kassab-Córdova, A., Silva-Perez, C., Quevedo-Ramirez, A., Mendoza Lugo, M.G., Azcarruz-Asencios, J., Castañeda-Montenegro, G., Bravo-Cucci, S. and Maguina, J.L. (2022), "Associated factors to depression diagnosed during incarceration in Peruvian male prisoners: a sub-analysis of the national census of prison population", International Journal of Prisoner Health, Vol. ahead-of-print No. ahead-of-print. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJPH-03-2022-0025

Publisher

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Emerald Publishing Limited

Copyright © 2022, Emerald Publishing Limited

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