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Air quality measurement, prediction and warning using transfer learning based IOT system for ambient assisted living

Shilpa Sonawani (Department of Computer Engineering, Vishwakarma University, Pune, India)
Kailas Patil (Department of Computer Engineering, Vishwakarma University, Pune, India)

International Journal of Pervasive Computing and Communications

ISSN: 1742-7371

Article publication date: 4 January 2023




Indoor air quality monitoring is extremely important in urban, industrial areas. Considering the devastating effect of declining quality of air in major part of the countries like India and China, it is highly recommended to monitor the quality of air which can help people with respiratory diseases, children and elderly people to take necessary precautions and stay safe at their homes. The purpose of this study is to detect air quality and perform predictions which could be part of smart home automation with the use of newer technology.


This study proposes an Internet-of-Things (IoT)-based air quality measurement, warning and prediction system for ambient assisted living. The proposed ambient assisted living system consists of low-cost air quality sensors and ESP32 controller with new generation embedded system architecture. It can detect Indoor Air Quality parameters like CO, PM2.5, NO2, O3, NH3, temperature, pressure, humidity, etc. The low cost sensor data are calibrated using machine learning techniques for performance improvement. The system has a novel prediction model, multiheaded convolutional neural networks-gated recurrent unit which can detect next hour pollution concentration. The model uses a transfer learning (TL) approach for prediction when the system is new and less data available for prediction. Any neighboring site data can be used to transfer knowledge for early predictions for the new system. It can have a mobile-based application which can send warning notifications to users if the Indoor Air Quality parameters exceed the specified threshold values. This is all required to take necessary measures against bad air quality.


The IoT-based system has implemented the TL framework, and the results of this study showed that the system works efficiently with performance improvement of 55.42% in RMSE scores for prediction at new target system with insufficient data.


This study demonstrates the implementation of an IoT system which uses low-cost sensors and deep learning model for predicting pollution concentration. The system is tackling the issues of the low-cost sensors for better performance. The novel approach of pretrained models and TL work very well at the new system having data insufficiency issues. This study contributes significantly with the usage of low-cost sensors, open-source advanced technology and performance improvement in prediction ability at new systems. Experimental results and findings are disclosed in this study. This will help install multiple new cost-effective monitoring stations in smart city for pollution forecasting.



Sonawani, S. and Patil, K. (2023), "Air quality measurement, prediction and warning using transfer learning based IOT system for ambient assisted living", International Journal of Pervasive Computing and Communications, Vol. ahead-of-print No. ahead-of-print.



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