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LOC algorithm: Location-aware opportunistic forwarding by using node’s approximate location

Sardar Kashif Ashraf Khan (School of Science and Technology, Middlesex University, London, UK)
Jonathan Loo (School of Science and Technology, Middlesex University, London, UK)
Aboubaker Lasebae (School of Science and Technology, Middlesex University, London, UK)
Muhammad Awais Azam (Department of Computer Engineering, Middlesex University, London, UK)
Muhammad Adeel (School of Electronic Engineering and Computer Science, Queen Mary University of London, London, UK)
Rehana Kausar (School of Electronic Engineering and Computer Science, Queen Mary University of London, London, UK)
Humaira Sardar (School of Electronic Engineering and Computer Science, Queen Mary University of London, London, UK)

International Journal of Pervasive Computing and Communications

ISSN: 1742-7371

Article publication date: 28 October 2014

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Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to propose an algorithm, location-aware opportunistic content forwarding (LOC), to improve message directivity using direction vectors in opportunistic networks. The LOC is based on the assumption that if approximate location of the destination node is known, then overall message delivery and cost can be improved. Efficient message delivery with low communication cost is a major challenge in current opportunistic networks. In these networks, nodes do not have prior knowledge of their recipients, and message forwarding can be achieved by selecting suitable forwarder based on some forwarding criteria, as compared to its ancestor mobile ad hoc networks.

Design/methodology/approach

In this paper, the authors tested LOC in two sets of mobility models, synthetic movement model and real mobility data sets. In the first set, working day movement is used as synthetic movement model, where proposed algorithm is compared against Lobby Influence (LI) and Epidemic algorithms. In the second set of experiments, the new algorithm is tested in three mobility data sets, namely, Cambridge, Reality and Sassy, and results compared against LI algorithm. The reason of using various movement models is to establish strengths and weaknesses of the proposed algorithm in different scenarios.

Findings

The experimental results show that the new algorithm performed extremely well in different scenarios, not only in terms of overall message delivery but also successfully managed to reduce the communication cost.

Originality/value

The new contribution increases the overall energy and storage efficiency of nodes by targeting relevant forwarding nodes in the network.

Keywords

Citation

Kashif Ashraf Khan, S., Loo, J., Lasebae, A., Awais Azam, M., Adeel, M., Kausar, R. and Sardar, H. (2014), "LOC algorithm: Location-aware opportunistic forwarding by using node’s approximate location", International Journal of Pervasive Computing and Communications, Vol. 10 No. 4, pp. 481-496. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJPCC-02-2014-0017

Publisher

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Emerald Group Publishing Limited

Copyright © 2014, Emerald Group Publishing Limited