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Mainstream economics’ war with the environment: counter-critiques from heterodox economics and Islamic economics

Ekrem Yilmaz (Faculty of Law and Economics, University of Greifswald, Greifswald, Germany)
Güler Deymencioğlu (Vocational School of Health Services, Istanbul Aydin University, Istanbul, Turkey)
Mehmet Atas (Institute of Middle East and Islamic Countries, Marmara University, Istanbul, Turkey)
Fatma Sensoy (Faculty of Business Administration, Istanbul Health and Technology University, Istanbul, Turkey)

International Journal of Ethics and Systems

ISSN: 2514-9369

Article publication date: 28 July 2023




This study aims to present the perspectives of heterodox economics and Islamic economics on environmental economics, as an alternative to mainstream economics, which takes economic growth as its main objective and argues that environmental problems will largely disappear when economic growth is achieved.


In this study, there was no intention to conduct a detailed analysis of heterodox economic models and Islamic economics. Instead, the approaches to the “environment,” which can be considered as an urgent need of the planet, were evaluated, and the inadequate proposals of the mainstream economics’ environmental approach were theoretically criticized and heterodox economics and Islamic economics were proposed as an alternative model.


Heterodox and Islamic economics offer alternative models of development prioritizing social and ecological justice to address environmental problems, which is in contrast to mainstream economics’ narrow focus on market mechanisms and individual rationality. Thus, engaging in more dialogue in the context of the environment is inevitable for both schools, considering the vast geography inhabited by Muslims and the proposed heterodox economic policies, and moreover, these approaches are modeled for the first time.


This article presents a synthesis of Islamic economics and heterodox thinking in contrast to mainstream economic policy, highlighting their similarities and differences and providing a more comprehensive understanding of the complexities and potential solutions of environmental problems. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this approach has not been previously explored, making it an original contribution to the literature.



Yilmaz, E., Deymencioğlu, G., Atas, M. and Sensoy, F. (2023), "Mainstream economics’ war with the environment: counter-critiques from heterodox economics and Islamic economics", International Journal of Ethics and Systems, Vol. ahead-of-print No. ahead-of-print.



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