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Nash equilibrium in emerging partnership-based Islamic banking industry with a Bayesian game-theoretic approach

Mahdi Ghaemi Asl (Faculty of Economics, Kharazmi University, Tehran, Iran)
Ali Ghasemoghli (Faculty of Economics, Kharazmi University, Tehran, Iran)
Rabeh Khalfaoui (ICN Business School, CEREFIGE, Nancy, France)

International Journal of Emerging Markets

ISSN: 1746-8809

Article publication date: 28 February 2023




A hypothesis developed in this paper models the relationship between the borrower and the bank as a dynamic game based on incomplete information (business game) and seeks an equilibrium point at which the facilitated applicant can act according to the terms of the loan agreement once the contract is signed and meet the requirements of the contract.


The primary assumption in the formation of the Islamic bank in Islamic society is that the members of the society are Muslims and act according to religious orders. However, the non-fulfillment of divine principles and orders is always possible. In partnership agreements, the risk of infringement is reduced and corrupt contracts are prevented in some circumstances. Our basic model was constructed using the Beer-Quiche classic game, which has been modified dynamically along with a generalization of complexity terms. The information asymmetry led us to use a heterogeneous belief system to evaluate the probability of the customer transmitting a low credit risk signal to the bank and the probability of the customer transmitting a high credit risk signal to the bank. There are several assumptions of the basic model that are released in the extended model by the presence of a social inspector, by exploring credit risk signals in the generalized model and by considering various commitment levels in the comprehensive model.


As a result, it is observed that there is no Nash equilibrium in cases where the customer applies separation strategies. But if the pulling strategies are applied, the Nash equilibrium can be achieved under certain conditions, including inspection bodies in the banking system, the creation of necessary transparency and the proper treatment of criminals by government and regulatory bodies. So, by using alternative belief systems, applying different filters and paying attention to all sectors of the economy, new Nash equilibrium points can be achieved. Moreover, multi-stage facilities payment reduces the risk of corrupt contracts.


This paper sets out to analyze Nash Equilibrium and its possible encounter in Islamic Banking for the first time, utilizing a Bayesian Game-Theoretic framework. A major aspect of the research is the contribution to a better understanding of the role of transparency and government oversight in the implementation of Islamic banking regulatory standards.



Ghaemi Asl, M., Ghasemoghli, A. and Khalfaoui, R. (2023), "Nash equilibrium in emerging partnership-based Islamic banking industry with a Bayesian game-theoretic approach", International Journal of Emerging Markets, Vol. ahead-of-print No. ahead-of-print.



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