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Foreign currency derivative usage and firm value in Bangladesh: comparative analysis between exporters and non-exporters under exchange rate movements

Sunghee Choi (Department of International Commerce, Keimyung University, Daegu, Korea)
Md. Abdus Salam (Directorate of Secondary and Higher Education, Secondary and Higher Education Division, Ministry of Education, Dhaka, Bangladesh)
Youngshin Kim (Department of International Commerce, Keimyung University, Daegu, Korea)

International Journal of Emerging Markets

ISSN: 1746-8809

Article publication date: 17 July 2020



The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of foreign currency derivative (FCD) usage on firm value. In specific, the authors study the significance of the relationship between FCD usage and firm value for exporters and non-exporters, respectively, with consideration of conditions of exchange rate movements.


As the main empirical test, this paper utilizes the multivariate Tobin's Q model for a panel dataset of 125 non-financial firms, which have been continuously listed on the Dhaka Stock Exchange from 2010–2018. The authors divide the sample firms into two groups: exporters and non-exporters based on theoretical background and estimate the relationship between FCD usage and the firm value measured by Tobin's Q for each firm group. Also, as a complementary test, the Fama–French three-factor model is used to estimate the effect of FCD usage on the monthly portfolio returns of the firms when exchange rate levels and volatility are considered.


First, the effect of FCD usage on firm value significantly exists in the Bangladeshi non-financial firms from 2010–2018. Specifically, the FCD effect on firm value is negative (hedging discount) for exporters, whereas the FCD effect is positive (hedging premium) for non-exporters. Second, the multivariate analyses suggest the hedging discount (premium) for exporters (non-exporters) is consistent only when the domestic currency appreciates (depreciates). Third, the FCD effect on firm value is consistently positive for non-exporters when exchange rate volatility is higher.

Research limitations/implications

Further studies could be conducted with the detailed data of the firms' hedging performance, if they are available. Particularly, the cost and revenue data associated with hedging would help identify evident reasons for exporters' hedging discounts in Bangladesh. Moreover, the best hedging option for maximizing the Bangladeshi firm value could be analyzed with the detailed FCD type data, such as futures, options and swaps. Further refinement of these data would improve institutional capability for substantive growth in frontier markers.

Practical implications

This paper provides practical implications for corporate managers in charge of managing foreign exchange risk in Bangladesh. First, closer accounting observation is much necessary for the firms to accurately evaluate whether the FCD usage is beneficial in their cash flows because the exporters come to have two large costs: entering foreign markets and carrying FCD program. Second, for better value from using FCDs, the exporters should learn how to utilize appropriate financial derivatives. FCD usage is beneficial when the exporters are fully aware of what their real risks are and the role of appropriate derivatives within its portfolio strategy.

Social implications

A policy reducing the costs of either foreign market entry or FCD usage would be helpful for lessening the FCD discount effect. Also, a long-term policy that enables the born-to-exporters to establish substantive positions in the home market would be helpful for enhancing the cash inflow capability, thereby causing the firm value structure to be strengthened.


The paper has originality because it bridges the gap in the literature. First, the authors find a new empirical result regarding the significant FCD effect on a frontier market, although the FCD effect deals with the small and secondary risk in the previous literatures. Second, finding the contrasting FCD effect between the exporters and non-exporters sheds lights on the importance of firm-specific characteristics for precisely evaluating the FCD effect on firm value. Third, we find that the significant FCD effect is prominent by condition of exchange rate movements, which has been overlooked in prior literature.



The authors gratefully acknowledge valuable comments from the editor, Dr. Ilan Alon, the senior editor, Prof. Aradhna Aggarwal, and anonymous referees.


Choi, S., Salam, M.A. and Kim, Y. (2020), "Foreign currency derivative usage and firm value in Bangladesh: comparative analysis between exporters and non-exporters under exchange rate movements", International Journal of Emerging Markets, Vol. ahead-of-print No. ahead-of-print.



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