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Exploring factors influencing bicycle-sharing adoption in India: a UTAUT 2 based mixed-method approach

Prasanta Kr Chopdar (Indian Institute of Management, Shillong, India)
Miltiadis D. Lytras (King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia) (College of Engineering, Effat University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia)
Anna Visvizi (SGH Warsaw School of Economics, Warsaw, Poland) (College of Business, Effat University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia)

International Journal of Emerging Markets

ISSN: 1746-8809

Article publication date: 15 February 2022




Bicycle sharing offers a novel way to create smart and sustainable mobility solutions for the future. The purpose of this study is to draw on the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology 2 (UTAUT 2) framework for identifying the factors necessary to predict bike-sharing intention among users in India.


Data were collected through a questionnaire distributed across four major cities in India, and 515 responses were analyzed. A sequential approach was employed to analyze the data using Partial Least Square–Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM) and Fuzzy-set Qualitative Comparative Analysis (fsQCA).


The findings from PLS analysis revealed that performance expectancy, effort expectancy, facilitating conditions, hedonic motivation and price value are the salient variables that affect users' intentions to participate in bike sharing. In addition, based on fsQCA, six configurations of causal conditions are presented as intermediate solutions that produce the same results. Although antecedent conditions, such as habit and social influence, had an insignificant effect on individuals' BSI, they create conditions sufficient to encourage users' participation in bike sharing in combination with other variables.

Research limitations/implications

A few limitations of this research and the implications of the findings in terms of theory and policy implications are also discussed.


The reported study is one of the earliest to explain bike-sharing adoption in India using the UTAUT 2 model.



Funding: This research did not receive any specific grants from funding agencies in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.


Chopdar, P.K., Lytras, M.D. and Visvizi, A. (2022), "Exploring factors influencing bicycle-sharing adoption in India: a UTAUT 2 based mixed-method approach", International Journal of Emerging Markets, Vol. ahead-of-print No. ahead-of-print.



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